On February 4, 1992. Hugo Chávez led a failed military coup and murder attempt
against president Carlos Andrés Pérez and his family, causing the deaths of many Venezuelans.
Thus started his career as a coupster ....
[Hugo Chávez, Wikipedia.org]
(incomplete in Spanish)
On March 26, 1994. After 2 years in prison,
president Rafaél Caldera decided the dismissal of the cause against Hugo Chávez,
and released him with his immediate accomplices. On December 14, Hugo Chávez visited Fidel Castro in La Habana.
Thus started his career as a Castro-communist ....
On December 6, 1998. Hugo Chávez was elected president with 60% of the votes
(40% Enrique Salas Römer, 46% abstention) and was inaugurated in February 2, 1999.
Chávez took the legal oath of office "on a dying constitution" that he "would not respect".
On March 10, 1999, he called an election for a Constituent Assembly,
where his supporters got 95% of the positions with just 30% of the votes.
Thus started his dictatorial career and the opposition to it ....
On December 15, 1999, the new constitution was approved, with 72% of the votes and 56% abstention.
After the voting, and after weeks of continual rains on the coastal mountains North of Venezuela,
mudslides killed about 30,000 people that were never evacuated.
[Mr. Chávez's Power Grab,
New York Times - Editorial, August 22, 2007]
On July 30, 2000. General elections were held.
Chávez's coalition got 66% of the seats in the National Assembly, while Chávez was reelected with 60% of the votes
(38% Francisco Arias Cárdenas, 44% abstention).
The Carter Center monitored the election; their report stated that, due to lack of transparency,
perceived partiality of the Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE; "National Electoral Council"),
and political pressure from the Chávez government that resulted in early elections,
they were unable to validate the official CNE results.
However, they concluded that the presidential election legitimately expressed the will of the people.
[Observing Political Change en Venezuela: The Bolivarian Constitution and the 2000 Elections,
Final Report, Laura Neuman and Jennifer McCoy, Carter Center, February 2001 (.pdf)]
Thus started his career of electoral fraud ....
On August 2000, Hugo Chávez visited Saddam Hussein in Bagdad.
[Hugo Chávez, Wikipedia.org]
(incomplete in Spanish)
On April 11, 2002.
A gigantic protest march in defense of the independence of Petróleos de Venezuela
resulted in 19 death and 150 injured by bullets. The military high command disobeyed orders from Hugo Chávez to attack the protestors,
and asked for his resignation, "which he accepted", according to General Lucas Rincón (now Ambassador to Portugal).
On April 11, 2002, Hugo Chávez was returned to the presidency by a military faction led by General Raúl Isaías Baduel.
[Political Crisis in Venezuela,
Human Rights Watch - Background Briefing, July 2002]
[Los primeros meses de 2002, Memorias de un Obispo, Monseñor Baltazar Porras, .pdf, 1.23 MB]
[On June 24, 2006 Baduel was promoted to General in Chief and appointed Minister of Defense.
On July 18, 2007, Baduel was retired and resigned as Minister to begin opposing Chávez.]
On February/March 2003.
Hugo Chávez, fired 18,756 managers, engineers,
technicians and qualified workers from Petróleos de Venezuela
which had opposed the politization of that company supporting the general strike of December 2002 and January 2003
(including 69% of the managers).
Petróleos de Venezuela then forbade their employment by the contractors.
On May 14, 2004. the National Assembly, with just a simple majority,
illegally increased from 20 to 32,
the number of judges in the Supreme Justice Tribunal to give Hugo Chávez control over the judiciary.
[Venezuela: Chávez Allies Pack Supreme Court,
Human Rights Watch, 14-12-2004]
A statistical study done by two Venezuelan scientists, Maria M. Febres Cordero and Bernardo Marquez,
has determined that Hugo Chavez alleged victory in the recall referendum of 2004 was unlikely.
The report concludes by saying "the Venezuelan opposition has statistical evidence to reject the official results given by the CNE.
The irregularities detected were observed consistently in numerous voting centers
and the magnitude of the irregularities implies
that the official results do not reflect the intention of voters with statistical confidence."
[Study shows how Hugo Chavez rigged elections in Venezuela
By Alek Boyd, 22.02.07. A statistical approach to assess referendum results: The Venezuelan recall referendum 2004. Cordero, Márquez, 2006]
Venezuela Presidential Referendum - Statistical Analysis, May 2006:
A statistical approach to assess referendum results: The Venezuelan recall referendum 2004
Maria M. Febres Cordero and Bernardo Márquez
This article presents a statistical approach to assess the coherence of official results of referendum processes.
The statistical analysis described is divided in four phases, according to the methodology used and the corresponding results:
(1) Initial Study, (2) Quantification of irregular certificates of election, (3) Identification of irregular voting centers
and (4) Estimation of recall referendum results.
The technique of cluster analysis is applied to address the issue of heterogeneity of the parishes
with respect to their political preferences.
The Venezuelan recall referendum 2004 is the case study we used to apply the proposed methodology,
based on the data published by the "Consejo Nacional Electoral" (CNE-National Electoral Council).
Finally, we present the conclusions of the study which we summarize as follows:
The percentage of irregular certificates of election is between 22.2% and 26.5% of the total;
18% of the voting centers show an irregular voting pattern in their certificates of election,
the votes corresponding to this irregularity are around 2,550,000;
The result estimate,
using the unbiased votes as representative of the population for the percentage of YES votes against President Chávez
is 56.4% as opposed to the official result of 41%.
Unemployment among the young is 18.4%, twice the national average.
More than 60% of the active labor population only have informal employment.
[La Exclusión laboral,
Juan Martín Echeverría, El Universal, October 1 '06,
in Venezuela Real]
Lack of confidence in the electoral system, resulting in more than 75% of
abstention on December 2005, giving Hugo Chávez 100% of the National Assembly.
[See the pages of Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)]
From May 28, 2007. The frequency of
Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV)
is being used by the government to establish TVes, a "public service television".
On May 26 '07 the Tribunal Supremo de Justicia illegally ordered all RCTV transmission equipment
temporarily under government custody for the use of TVes.
[This measure is generating protests around the country]
[From July 16 '07 Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV)
can be seen on private subscription carriers DirectTV, Intercable, Net Uno, Planet Cable, and Supercable]
2006 PDVSA revenue fell nearly 16% from 2005,
the local profits fell more than 65% while our oil prices rose more than 19%,
social expences almost duplicated to $13,781 million,
according to their audited financial statements presented Friday 7, September '07.
[See El Universal, Marianna Párraga, Septiembre 11, 2007]
On December 2, 2007. Hugo Chávez ilegally submitted to a referendum a new constitution;
Communist and even more presidentialist than the one from the Constituent Assembly of 1999,
permitting his continued reelection and restricting human rights and private property.
Human Rights are inalienable,
and a fundamental change in the constitution can only be made by a Constituent Assembly,
never by a minority in a referendum.
[See Venezuela - President for life
[See List of proposed changes in Venezuela referendum
[See Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations)]
[This measure generated protests around the country]
[On November 5, 2007, Retired General Raúl Isaías Baduel rejected the new constitution, calling it a "fraud"]
On April 2, 2008. More than 122 days after the referendum, 1.8 milion votes remain uncounted.
Lucena y sus Cuentos de Camino
in Venezuela Real: Óscar Lucien, El Nacional, 4 de Abril 2008]
By December 1, 2008, these 1.8 milion votes remain uncounted.
A sample from the proposed new constitution; from article 136:
"The people are depositaries of the sovereignty and exercise it directly through the Popular Power.
This is not born from suffrage or any election,
but is born from the condition of the human groups organized as the base of the population."
[See Reforma Constitucional
in Venezuela Real]
This contradicts article 21 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations):
"The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government;
this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections
which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures."
Any act on the part of the Public Power that violates or encroaches upon the rights
guaranteed by this Constitution and by law is null and void,
and the public employees ordering or implementing the same shall incur criminal, civil and administrative liability,
as applicable in each case, with no defense on grounds of having followed the orders of a superior.
This Constitution shall not cease to be in effect if it ceases to be observed due to acts of force
or because of repeal in any manner other than as provided for herein.
In such eventuality, every citizen, whether or not vested with official authority,
has a duty to assist in bringing it back into actual effect.
The people of Venezuela, true to their republican tradition and their struggle for independence, peace and freedom,
shall disown any regime, legislation or authority that violates democratic values, principles and guarantees or encroaches upon human rights.
On January 12, 2008. Hugo Chávez said in his annual report before the National Assembly,
that the FARC and ELN "are insurgent forces with a political project that is respected here".
His National Assembly, sheepishly approved.
[See ESPECIAL: Chávez presentó su Informe en la AN
On February 25, 2008. Clodosbaldo Russián, the general comptroller,
filed before the directors of the CNE a list of 400 public officials inconstitucionally disabled by his office
to opt for popularly elected office.
None of the included will be able to run in the 2008 regional elections.
Among these are the opposition leaders Leopoldo López, Enrique Mendoza, Oscar Pérez, Enrique Ochoa Antich and Alfredo Peña.
Contralor llevó al CNE la lista de 400 inhabilitados para postularse
in El Universal]
Venezuela increased its arms imports dramatically in 2003-2007,
taking it from the 56th biggest importer in the world in 1998-2002, to the 24th place.
Some 92% of Venezuela's imports came from Russia. International Arms Transfers Database,
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
On May 28, 2008.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías President of the Republic
On exercise of the attributions conferred on him by numeral 8 of article 236 of the Constitution
of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and in conformity with numeral 9 of article 1 of the Law
authorizing the President of the Republic to dictate Decrees with Rank,
Value and Force of Law on the matters that are delegated, ....
DICTATES the following,
DECREE WITH RANK, VALUE AND FORCE OF LAW
OF THE NATIONAL SYSTEM OF INTELLIGENCE AND COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
CHAPTER I - GENERAL DISPOSITIONS
Range of application
The norms and principles contained in this Decree with Rank, Value and Force of Law
are of mandatory compliance for:
5. Every person that in the course of his activities inside or outside of the national territory
has or has access to information of strategic interest for the Nation.
CHAPTER III - OF THE SUBSYSTEMS
Organs of Support
Article 16.- Organs of Support to the activities of intelligence and counterintelligence are,
the natural and juridic persons, from public and private law, nationals or foreingners,
just as the organs and entities of the national public administration, states, municipalities,
the social networks, organizations of popular participation and organized communities,
when their cooperation is solicited for the obtention of information or technical support,
by the organs with special jurisdiction.
The persons that do not comply with the obligations established in this article
are responsible in comformity with the Organic Law of Security of the Nation,
and other acts of legal and sublegal rank applicable on the matter,
because such conduct threatens the security, defense and integral development of the Nation.
On June 7, 2008. Hugo Chávez admitted that this law "overreaches" and will be reformed.
On June 10, 2008, he recalled this law.
On June 17, 2008. Twenty seven Venezuelan groups started an international campaign
supporting a petition presented to the International Penal Court (IPC) in Le Hague to investigate and judge
president Hugo Chávez for his alleged ties to the FARC.
[See Venezuela Offered Aid to Colombian Rebels
(Washington Post, Juan Forero, May 15, 2008)]
Frente Patriótico - Comunicado,
19 de Diciembre de 2008]
On July 31, 2008. Hugo Chávez inconstitucionally dictated 26 new laws
on banking, transportation, housing and social security, and on military matters,
making himself the highest military commander.
This was protested by opposition leaders.
Some of the contents of these laws had already been rejected in the referendum on the constitutional reform of December 2, 2007.
Heated debate over 26 new laws enacted by Chávez,
El Universal, August 4, 2008]
The Consumer Price Index for the Metropolitan Area of Caracas (IPC-AMC) for August 2008,
published by the BCV, reflects 34.5% of acummulated inflation in the last 12 months.
On August 11, 2008. Hugo Chávez, amidst obscene statements,
announced he was giving American Ambassador in Venezuela Patrick Duddy 72 hours to leave the country,
in part to show solidarity with the Bolivian government and people.
He also ordered Venezuelan Foreign Affairs Minister Nicolás Maduro
to recall Venezuelan Ambassador in Washington Bernardo Álvarez "before he is kicked out".
Venezuelan Government expelled US Ambassador,
VenEconomy, August 12, 2008]
[Ver Venezuela Joins Bolivia in Expelling U.S. Ambassador
(Washington Post, Juan Forero, Sep. 12, 2008)]
On October 23, 2008. In a resolution on democracy and human rights adopted at the end of this week's Strasbourg plenary session,
the European Parliament condemns the use of intimidation and electoral manipulation
in the run-up to elections in Venezuela.
In the run-up to Venezuela's regional and local elections in November 2008,
Parliament, in a resolution adopted by 51 votes to 1,
"expresses concern about the list of electoral disqualifications" issued by the authorities,
pointing to a "long series of measures taken by the government with a view to intimidating opposition members,
dissidents and international observers in the country".
Human rights: political rights abuses in Venezuela]
On November 23, 2008. There were regional elections for 22 State Governors, 328 Municipal or District Mayors,
20 Councils in City Halls, 233 in Legislative Councils (603 positions in total).
On February 25, 2008. Clodosbaldo Russián, the general comptroller,
filed before the directors of the CNE a list of 400 public officials inconstitucionally disabled by his office
to opt for popularly elected office.
Those included were not able to run in this 2008 regional elections.
Among these are the opposition leaders Leopoldo López, Enrique Mendoza, Oscar Pérez, Enrique Ochoa Antich and Alfredo Peña.
Contralor llevó al CNE la lista de 400 inhabilitados para postularse
in El Universal]
For Ousted Candidate, Fight Goes On
(Washington Post, Juan Forero, October 11, 2008)]
The project for constitutional reform defeated in the referendum of December 2, 2007,
contained the change to "indefinite reelection".
According to Art. 345:
A revised constitutional reform initiative may not be submitted during the same constitutional term of office of the National Assembly.
(1999 Constitution, in effect)
The illegal referendum question does not contain the texts of the proposed reformed articles
the government has not published the texts of the reforms; the amendment is a blank check.
On February 2, 2009. Hugo Chávez reached 10 years in power,
10 years dedicated to destroying Venezuela, transforming an emerging democracy into a failed fascist dictatorship.
On February 15, 2009.
The government submitted to a referendum an ilegal constitutional amendment eliminating the two-term limit for the presidential office
and other elected officials.
The opposition voted No. The officialists Yes.
The non-aligned and the abstention decided the vote. And the results?
On April 3, 2009.
Venezuela cries out for justice and weeps.
Easter this year started with bad omens for Venezuela.
This Good Friday opened the gates not only to Easter week, but also, tragically,
to the rogue injustice of the Hugo Chávez administration.
The list of its victims now includes those who have just been guillotined by the unjust sentence
handed down by Judge Maryori Calderón:
former Metropolitan Police captains Iván Simonovis, Henry Vivas, and Lázaro Forero and eight policemen.
Venezuela cries out for justice and weeps, VenEconomy, April 3, 2009]
On March 23, 2010.
Venezuelan authorities have jailed a former state governor and presidential candidate
who accused President Hugo Chávez's government of links to subversive groups in Latin America.
The detention of Oswaldo Álvarez Paz,
a veteran of the opposition COPEI party but not one of Chávez's most prominent foes,
will fuel criticism that the Venezuelan leader is taking his nation down an increasingly dictatorial route.
Picked up at home Monday night, Álvarez joins a list of several dozen Chávez opponents now in jail,
living in exile or facing probes in the South American oil-exporting country.
A court ordered Álvarez's arrest for conspiracy, spreading false information and inciting hate, judicial officials said.
He governed oil-producing Zulia state in the early 1990s and unsuccessfully ran for the presidency with COPEI in 1993.
Authorities opened an inquiry into Álvarez earlier this month
after he gave an interview to pro-opposition TV network Globovision accusing the government of ties to illegal groups.
"The Venezuelan regime has relations with structures that serve narco-trafficking,
like [Colombian rebel group] FARC and others which exist in the continent and the world", he said.
The accusations against Álvarez could carry a jail sentence of between two and 16 years, local media said.
"I assume the responsibility for the things that I have said and that I do", he told reporters before his arrest.
Oswaldo Álvarez Paz was released on bail on May '10.
[He was found partially guilty on July 13, 2011. See below.]
On July 12, 2010.
A commando of 20 agents from the Servicio Bolivariano de Inteligencia Nacional (SEBIN),
burst into the apartment of Venezuelan political leader Alejandro Peña Esclusa and took him prisoner.
The break-in resulted from the statements given by an alleged terrorist from El Salvador detained in Venezuela,
Francisco Chávez Abarca, in which he implicated Peña Esclusa in an alleged plot against the State.
Due process was violated; first, because Chávez Abarca did not declare in front of a tribunal,
as corresponds according to law, but in the headquarters of SEBIN; and second, because the Salvadoran was immediately extradited to Cuba,
without being judged in Venezuela, even though - according to the government - he was involved in a plot to destabilize the State.
It is presumed he was extradited so his testimony could not be falsified in a trial or, so he could not be thoroughly investigated.
In a drawer in the desk of the youngest of Peña Esclusa's daughters, 8 years old,
the agents "found" type C-4 explosives with the corresponding detonators.
The agents seized the opportunity to steal cash, jewels, electronic equipment and other valuables.
The true reason why the ex-presidential candidate Peña Esclusa is in jail,
is his long and persistent trajectory of denouncing mister Hugo Chávez.
Peña Esclusa not only has denounced verbally and in writing the civil and human rights violations committed
by the Venezuelan government;
but has penaly charged mister Chávez before the Public Ministry (for Treason, due to his ties with FARC),
he has charged him before the Interamerican Comission on Human Rights (Washington)
for improperly intervening and promoting violence in other Latin American countries;
and was about to file charges for crimes against humanity before the International Penal Court (CPI),
based in Le Hague - based on the information contained in the computers of FARC's second-in-command, aka. Raúl Reyes,
killed on March 1, 2008 - due to the complicity of mister Chávez with the Colombian narco-terrorists.
Peña Esclusa has been persecuted systematically by Chávez's government.
Was illegally detained in 2002 - also in the headquarters of SEBIN - by direct order from mister Chávez.
The States' media and functionaries have advanced a campaign of slanders against him.
Chávez himself has attacked him publically in all national radio and television stations.
He has been forbidden to leave the country for two years. Has been subjected to police tracking,
threats against his physical integrity and constant harassment.
The case on the governmental persecution against Peña Esclusa was presented by his lawyer before the International Penal Court (Le Hague).
Alejandro Peña Esclusa, 56 years of age, has no criminal record, nor weaponry knowledge.
Has been an outstanding sportsman, getting international titles for his country. Has a stable, well founded, family.
Is a mechanical engineer, with advanced studies in financial administration, and defense and security.
Was an assessor to the National Council on Security and Defense of Venezuela (CONASEDE).
Is a writer and columnist; author of six books, some of which have been translated to other languages.
Was a candidate for the Presidency of Venezuela. Is a correspondent in Venezuela and Colombia for Argentine daily La Nueva Provincia.
Member of the Philosophical Academy of Brazil. President of the civil asociation Fuerza Solidaria.
President of the Union of Democratic Organizations of America (UnoAmérica).
Has been decorated in Honduras with the Order José Cecilio del Valle.
Received a special recognition from the Alabama Congress,
for his extensive efforts defending democracy and freedoms in Latin America.
Has been invited as speaker in almost all the capitals in America.
On September 26, 2010.
"Mesa de la Unidad Democrática" got 48% of the popular vote in the parliamentary elections, but just 39% of the deputies.
"PSUV" with 49% of the popular vote got 59% of the deputies. "PPT" with 3% of the votes got just 1% of the deputies.
According to the Consejo Nacional Electoral,
out of 165 deputies PSUV got 98 with 5,399,574 votes, MUD got 65 with 5,312,293 votes, PPT got 2 with 330,260 votes.
Participation was 11,042,127 votes total, 66.45% of the electoral registry.
With these results the opposition breaks the qualified majority of the officialist party in the Asamblea Nacional.
[Aggregate electoral data from El Universal, Septiembre 27, 2010]
Divulgación Elecciones Parlamentarias - 26 de Septiembre de 2010,
Consejo Nacional Electoral]
Article 186 (Violated by the Consejo Nacional Electoral):
The National Assembly will be integrated by deputies elected in each federal entity by universal voting,
direct, personal and secret with proportional representation,
according to a population base of one point one percent of the total population of the country.
Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela,
Diciembre 30, 1999]
On December 20, 2010.
The National Assembly has just ratified a new blow to freedom of expression and information in Venezuela
by approving two bills amending the Organic Law on Telecommunications (Lotel)
and the Social Responsibility in Radio, TV and Electronic Media Law (Resortemec) at the government’s bidding on 20 December.
Freedom of expression threatened by legislative reforms being rushed through parliament
(Reporters Without Borders, 22 December 2010)
On May 10, 2011.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS)
published the Strategic Dossier "The FARC Files: Venezuela, Ecuador and the Secret Archive of 'Raúl Reyes'".
This Strategic Dossier provides unique insights into the thinking and evolution of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
It is based on a study of the computer disks belonging to Luis Edgar Devía Silva (aka Raúl Reyes),
head of FARC's International Committee (COMINTER),
that were seized by Colombian armed forces in a raid in March 2008 on Devía's camp inside Ecuador.
Several months afterwards,
senior officials from the Colombian Ministry of Defence invited the IISS to conduct an independent analysis of the material.
The dossier shows how FARC evolved from a small,
autarkic and strategically irrelevant group into an insurgent movement which,
fuelled by revenues from narcotics production,
came close to jeopardising the survival of the Colombian state.
A key part of FARC's evolution was the development of an international strategy aimed at acquiring financial support,
arms and political legitimacy.
The dossier looks in detail at FARC's relations with Venezuela and Ecuador.
The dossier illuminates in detail FARC's efforts to develop relationships with the governments
and other strategic actors in the neighbouring states of Venezuela and Ecuador.
These followed different trajectories and achieved different degrees of success.
The relationship with Venezuela ultimately acquired a strategic dimension characterised by various forms of state support,
whereas that with Ecuador did not.
From June 10 2011.
Chavez's disappearance from public view since a surgical operation in Cuba
has convulsed the volatile and politically polarized South American OPEC member of 29 million people.
He came back to Venezuela on July 4 but continues to receive cancer treatment in Cuba.
On July 13, 2011.
The former Governor of Zulia State, Oswaldo Álvarez Paz, was sentenced to two years in prison
for the crime of spreading false information.
The twenty-first Trial Court of the Metropolitan Area of Caracas, in charge of Judge Alberto Rossi,
found that Álvarez Paz incurred in this crime on March 8, 2010, when during a television show,
he said that "Venezuela had become a center of operations that facilitates drug trafficking".
Despite the sentence, the former Governor of Zulia will not remain behind bars,
because the Court agreed to his staying on bail with prohibition from leaving the country.
Out of the trial, Álvarez Paz said that his trial is "a political case".
On September 1, 2011.
The Interamerican Court of Human Rights ruled in favor of Leopoldo López.
The ruling determined that the disqualification of opposition politician López Mendoza violated his political rights
under Article 23 of the American Convention on Human Rights. The IACourtHR also asked Venezuela to lift Lopez Mendoza's disqualification.
"The ruling of the IACHR Court runs counter to the human rights of all Venezuelans, the laws of the Republic,
justice and national sovereignty; it promotes impunity and impedes and undermines the fight against corruption",
reads the statement issued by the Comptroller General, Carlos Escarrá, Office.
On November 21, 2011.
Diego Arria files complaint against President Chávez at The Hague.
Opposition presidential pre-candidate Diego Arria said that the lawsuit seeks to protect Venezuelans from crimes
which are "predictable" due to Venezuela's situation. He expects a prompt ruling.
"It is a complaint to defend the rights of thousands and thousands of victims of Hugo Chávez.
This complaint is neither against the Venezuelan president's office as an institution nor against Chávez as Head of State.
It is intended to determine the criminal and personal liability of Hugo Chávez and some of his top aides for crimes against humanity",
Arria stressed that the complaint requires a prompt ruling,
in order to prevent new crimes that are foreseeable in the light of Venezuelan circumstances.
"I intend to prevent situations similar to those occurred in countries such as Ivory Coast
when his President (Laurent Gbagbo) refused to step down."
On January 9, 2012.
Chávez orders closure of Venezuelan consulate in Miami.
"During the presentation of his Report and Accounts,
President Hugo Chávez ordered the closure of the consulate in Miami
while his government assesses the facts in which Consul General Livia Acosta was allegedly involved."
"Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez on Friday announced the closure of Venezuela's Consulate in Miami,
after the US government expelled Venezuelan Consul General Livia Acosta last week."
"'Foreign Minister (Nicolás Maduro) advised me to close the consulate. We have shut it down. There is no consulate in Miami',
said the head of State during the presentation of his Report and Accounts at the National Assembly."
On February 12, 2012.
With about 1.8 (62%) of the 2.9 million votes,
Henrique Capriles Radonski won the Mesa de la Unidad Democrática (MUD) primary elections
to oppose Chávez in the presidential elections of October 7 2012.
On February 23, 2012.
Venezuela's President said during a cabinet meeting broadcast by all Venezuelan and TV stations
that he is expected to undergo surgery on Monday or Tuesday after doctors found a new lesion
on the same spot where he had cancer surgery last June.
On March 16, 2012.
Chávez arrives in Venezuela.
The Venezuelan president stayed for 21 days in Havana,
where he underwent surgery on 26 February to remove a new tumor at the same site where on June last year
he was removed a cancerous tumor from the pelvic area.
On April 12, 2012.
Hugo Chavez commemorated the tenth anniversary of the events of April 2002 with a "gathering of friends"
in all national radio and television networks.
After arriving at 10:25 pm this Wednesday night at the Simón Bolívar International Airport in Maiquetía, from Havana, Cuba,
where he underwent a third cycle of radiotherapy,
the mandatary immediately headed for Miraflores Palace to kick off what he called "a conversational meeting".
On April 14, 2012.
Chávez not to attend Summit on health reasons.
Foreign minister Nicolás Maduro announced that Hugo Chávez will not attend the Summit of the Americas in Colombia
because he must prepare to start the fourth cycle of radiation therapy to fight cancer.
On April 18, 2012.
Justice Eladio Aponte Aponte said that senior officers of the Bolivarian Armed Forces
and top officials of Hugo Chávez's government are involved in drug trafficking operations.
Eladio Aponte Aponte is currently in Miami, under the protection of the DEA.
On April 20, 2012.
Venezuelan general Wilmer Moreno was killed.
Moreno was a close collaborator of the current Venezuelan government.
He participated in the attempted coup of 1992, in which Chávez sought to overthrow and kill then President Carlos Andrés Pérez.
On May 12, 2012.
Back in Venezuela, Chávez says he completed radiation therapy.
Hugo Chávez said he "successfully" completed the cycle of radiation therapy, as scheduled by his medical team.
He arrived late on Friday at Simón Bolívar International Airport in Maiquetía, after spending 11 days in Havana, Cuba,
where he underwent the last two (fifth and sixth) cycles of radiation therapy sessions to treat the cancer that he suffers.
On July 4, 2012.
World leftwing closes ranks with Venezuelan leader.
Sao Paulo Forum joins efforts to prevent the rightwing advance.
Beginning on Wednesday,
120 leftwing parties from all over the world and 400 international delegates will gather for the 18th session of Sao Paulo Forum,
for the first time in Caracas.
According to the master document that will guide the talks, they will take sides with Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez for his reelection.
"The US meddling and influence can be felt in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
through several attempts at influencing the Venezuelan election, promoting undemocratic clues ahead of the election of October 2012.
For the Venezuelan and hemispheric leftwing, the reelection of Commander Hugo Chávez is of the essence," they admonished.
[In that regard, they add that "solidarity with the candidacy of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela" will be agreed.]
On July 14, 2012.
Confession letter forwarded by Venezuelan ex-Magistrate Aponte Aponte.
"The acusation was thrown by the former magistrate of the Room of Criminal Cassation of the Supreme Court of Justice, Eladio Aponte Aponte,
who asserted that the president ordered him to achieve the Commissioners
Ivan Simonovis, Henry Vivas, Lazaro Forero and eight agents of the defunct Metropolitan Police (PM)
processed by the events of April 11, 2002 were sentenced, as indeed happened."
"Mssrs. Ex-Commissioners Henry Vivas Lázaro Forero, Iván Simonovis, Erasmo Bolívar, Luis Molina, Arube Pérez, Marco Hurtado, Héctor Lovaina",
"The undersigned, Dr. Ramón Eladio Aponte Aponte, former magistrate of the Criminal Court, Supreme Tribunal of Justice,
holder of Venezuelan Identity Card number three five one one zero four, attest:"
"It is my peremptory duty to avow you, and everyone,
that I have committed the sin of having issued to the judges who prosecuted you
the order to sentence you to 30-year imprisonment at whatever cost.
I was just following direct orders from President Hugo Chávez Frías, who instructed me to do it".
[San José, Costa Rica, this sixteenth day of April, year two thousand and twelve]
On October 07, 2012.
Polling places start operations across Venezuela.
From 6 am on Sunday polling centers started operations in Venezuela,
but voters were waiting in line at the doors of the voting places from early morning hours.
The electoral register comprises 18.8 million registered voters, including 100,495 Venezuelans living abroad,
who are eligible to go to the polls on Sunday to choose the next president of the republic for the 2012-2019 period.
Polling stations are to close at 6 pm, but the voting process could be extended at polling centers where there are still voters in line.
The tally process will be fully automatic. The first report on results will be issued when an irreversible electoral trend exists.
Venezuelan laws prohibit the dissemination of exit polls before the first official report.
There are 39,322 polling stations in 13,810 polling places.
For the first time, the voting machines will be activated by a fingerprint-reading device
to prevent any voter from casting his ballot more than once.
Some 139,000 troops will be in charge of security and logistics in the electoral process.
On October 07, 2012.
Chávez reelected as president until 2019.
The results were disclosed after 90% of the ballots were counted.
President Hugo Chávez was reelected with 7,444,082 votes (54.42%),
while opposition hopeful Henrique Capriles won 6,151,544 votes (44.97%),
announced National Electoral Council (CNE) president Tibisay Lucena late on Sunday.
Lucena stressed that turnout in the presidential election hit 80.94%.
On October 07, 2012.
Capriles: I hope Chávez interprets people's expression with greatness.
"We have started to pave the way and more than six million people are looking for future. You can count on me.
I am at your service and I want to tell the other Venezuelans (government supporters) that they can count on me as well",
said opposition leader Henrique Capriles after electoral authorities announced Hugo Chávez's reelection as president.
On October 9, 2012.
Reelected President Chávez obtains over eight million votes.
Venezuelan reelected President Hugo Chávez surpassed the eight million vote threshold.
Upon review and counting of ballots in 38,066 polling stations (96.7%),
the reelected president gained 8,044,106 valid votes totaling 55.11% of the electorate.
For his part, challenger Henrique Capriles Radonski obtained 6,461,612 (44.27%).
The final figures are yet to come. Counting is still pending in another 952 polling stations in Venezuela and 127 abroad.
If these 38,066 poling stations received 14.505.718 valid votes, at a rate of 381 votes each, in average,
they had to receive them a rate of almost 31.8 votes per hour;
that is, some 2 minutes per vote during 12 hours, sustained at each station!
And this does not consider the null votes, each taking some time also.
On October 10, 2012.
Capriles: "The winner was the Government, Venezuela never won".
Referring to Chávez's reelection as president and both the unequal grounds of the election campaign
and the voters that the Government was able to bribe, Capriles commented that "the winner was the Government. Venezuela never won."
Número de Electores escrutados: 18,679,336 (Registered voters)
Número Total de Votantes que votaron realmente: 15,062,393 (Actual votes)
Participación: 80.63% (Turnout)
Número de Votos Escrutados: 15,059,298 (Votes counted)
Número total de Votos Válidos: 98.1% 14,773,687 (Valid Votes)
Número total de Votos Nulos: 1.89% 285,611 (Null Votes)
Número de Actas Procesadas: 38,798 (Polling Stations Processed)
15,059,298 / 38,798 = 388.1463 = 388 votes per polling station (in average)
388.146 votes per station / 12 = 32.3455 votes per station per hour = 0.539 votes per minute
0.539 votes per minute = 1.855 minutes per vote = 1 min. 51 seg. per vote [sustained]!
Even when supposing a working time of 13 hours for all voting stations, the calculation gives 2 minutes per vote!
[from when you get access to the voting machine to when the next voter gets access]
But Miguel Octavio (moctavio) on
October 11, 2012 at 6:31 pm
(at The Devil's Excrement - Postmorten Of The Venezuelan Election) said:
"In my table, we were voting faster than one person per minute, probably two per minute."
In Chávez' Venezuela, to get access to the voting machine you must first have your fingerprint scanned,
as it appears in your I.D. that you must show. [The fear factor]
But there were other factors that explain both the very high speed of the vote and the low abstention:
the multiple votes of the activists with multiple I.D.
in the centres without representation of the opposition until the closing of the polling station,
and activists voting for those who did not show up during the day.
"I have a conviction, and it is that the Sunday results do not reflect the true will of the people of Venezuela."
"If the elections had been free and clean, another would be the result," said opposition Deputy Maria Corina Machado.
"On October 7, what was imposed here, what won here, were the abuse and the outrage of the Government", she said.
Ramón Guillermo Aveledo, one of the main architects of the unit of the Venezuelan opposition,
said that bullying played a role in the re-election of President Hugo Chávez,
pointing out that the result of the elections this month may have been most linked with the fear
that with a legitimate affection of the population towards the Bolivarian Revolution.
"It can be concluded that: the inconsistencies found in many voting centers and the magnitude of them,
imply that the official results of the elections on 7-Oct-2012 do not reflect the will of the people with statistical security."
Since December 11, 2012,
Chávez has been in Cuba under intensive medical care after major cancer surgery.
Regional Elections 2012:
On December 16, 2012.
the oficialism won in 20 states and the opposition could only keep 3 (Miranda, Lara and Amazonas),
and they lost 4 states (Mérida, Zulia, Nueva Esparta and Monagas).
The abstention was around 47%.
On January 17, 2013.
"Maduro: Gov't ponders scenarios, but Chávez remains the President."
"Venezuelan Executive Vice-President Nicolás Maduro said the government is assessing and reassessing scenarios,
but stressed that President Hugo Chávez is and will continue to be the president of Venezuela."
On February 8, 2013.
"Venezuela devalues currency by 46.5%; VEB at 6.30 per US dollar."
"An adjustment in the official exchange rate, from VEB 4.30 per US dollar to VEB 6.30 per US dollar, which implies 46.5% devaluation."
On February 27, 2013.
the former ambassador of Panama to the OAS said Wednesday to the international channel NTN24 news
that President Hugo Chávez would have been switched off four days ago from the machines that kept him alive.
"The President would have been disconnected from the machines that kept him alive four days ago"
"The information that I have is that Chávez from December 30 was brain-dead,
in that state they moved him to Venezuela because they didn't want to disconnect him in Cuba", said the former ambassador.
Guillermo Cochez challenged chavism to belie his statements.
"I challenge the Government of Venezuela to tell me that what I say is false, showing Chávez".
According to Guillermo Cochez between Wednesday and Thursday in Venezuela, new elections would be called.
"As a result of all this, today or tomorrow they would call new elections,
that reflects what has been said about the health of President Chávez is totally false."
"He has been hidden, because no one has seen him, they have been misreporting the information with false photographs,
which do not reflect reality". "They have been cheating Venezuela and the whole world", he reiterated.
Guillermo Cochez was dismissed on January 17 from his post as ambassador of Panama to the Organization of American States OAS
after controversial statements about the situation experienced by Venezuela.
On February 28, 2013.
President Chávez has been off the air for 80 days.
"Many thought that the return of Venezuela's President Hugo Chávez to his country of origin would mean his public reappearance.
Neverthless, 10 days after, the most famous patient in Caracas' Military Hospital remains as invisible as in Cuba,
with the visits restricted to a small number of close relatives and ministers."
On March 5, 2013.
Carter hails Chávez's commitment to improving the lives of Venezuelans.
"Former US president Jimmy Carters praised Chávez's efforts to "create new forms of integration" in Latin America and the Caribbean,
noting that during his 14-year tenure Venezuelan poverty rates were cut in half
and a more effective participation in political and economic life was facilitated to millions."
On March 11, 2013.
Cuba is said to have sent 2,000 agents to lever Maduro.
"According to Spanish daily newspaper ABC, the Cuban agents would be responsible for election monitoring,
along with some 46,000 Cuban cooperators who officially reside in Venezuela,
with the ultimate purpose of nailing down the Chavista revolution."
On April 13, 2013.
According to Datamática, market research and public opinion company,
Henrique Capriles arrives at the election date with a 12.7% advantage over Nicolás Maduro in voting intention.
(42.2% vs. 29.5%, with 27.4% undecided) [Tracking poll #19]
On April 14, 2013.
Maduro is the new Venezuelan president with 50,66% of votes.
"Nicolás Maduro was elected as the new Venezuelan president with 7,505,338 votes (50.66% of the ballots cast)
versus 7,270,403 votes of opposition candidate Henrique Capriles,
who gained 49.07% of ballots, said president of the National Electoral Council (CNE) Tibisay Lucena."
"Lucena disclosed the election results after 99.12 percent of the ballots were counted. Turnout was estimated at 78.71 percent."
On April 15, 2013.
Capriles rejects results as long as all votes are not counted.
"Opposition coalition presidential candidate Henrique Capriles on Monday firmly stated that
he makes no pact with "a person I deem illegitimate"
and called on the National Electoral Council (CNE) to audit all the ballot boxes "so that every vote is counted again.""
On April 19, 2013.
Nicolás Maduro sworn in as Venezuelan president.
"At 2:05 pm Nicolás Maduro was sworn in by Speaker of National Assembly (AN) Diosdado Cabello as the President of Venezuela."
"The daughter of late President Hugo Chávez, María Gabriela Chávez,
along with Speaker of National Assembly (AN) Diosdado Cabello, put the presidential sash on Maduro."
On April 20, 2013.
Electoral body: The presidential vote is over; the results are irreversible.
""Audits do not lead to results; it is important to keep this in mind",
said Sandra Oblitas, director of the Nacional Electoral Council (CNE)."
"Oblitas warned that the CNE decision announced on Thursday to conduct an additional audit of 46% of the ballot boxes
that were not audited on April 14 "is not a recount. The audit will be conducted under the technical standards provided by the CNE."."
Art 156, Organic Law of Electoral Processes (2009):
The audit is the verification of all the materials, technological resources and data
used in the execution of the various phases of the electoral process,
so that they guarantee the transparency and reliability of the process.
Audits may be applied to all or some of the phases of the electoral process.
On April 21, 2013.
The reasonable doubts about April 14 presidential election.
"More than four million votes did not match when recounting ballot by ballot.
The Election Day that took place last Sunday April 14 will be remembered
because of excesses with assisted vote and several election audits in the absence of witnesses."
On April 22, 2013.
Henrique Capriles does not rule out election re-run.
"Presidential candidate for opposition Unified Democratic Panel (MUD) Henrique Capriles
told Spanish newspaper El Mundo in an interview
that he is convinced that the outcome of an election audit in Venezuela would lead to a new election, at least partially."
On April 23, 2013.
Minister Varela threatens to put Henrique Capriles behind bars.
"Minister of Penitentiary Affairs Iris Varela said the Venezuelan government is to report to domestic and foreign bodies
what she described as "fascist actions" by the opposition.
She said videos and testimonies would be presented as evidence.
Further, she threatened to put opposition leader Henrique Capriles in jail."
On April 25, 2013.
Capriles to contest the results of the presidential election of April 14.
"The former presidential candidate for the opposition coalition MUD
conditioned his participation in the audit of 46% of the ballot boxes
on the delivery of the voter's rolls by the National Electoral Council.
"If we are denied access to the voter's rolls, we will not participate in a tinpot audit (...) because it is a mockery of Venezuelans"."
On April 29, 2013.
Henrique Capriles to contest election results by May 6.
""I have no doubt that this matter will be brought to international bodies.
Any time soon, our country will hold another election. Be confident and have faith (...) lies are fragile," Henrique Capriles remarked."
On May 13, 2013.
Mercosur commission plans to review democratic status in Venezuela.
"The Human Rights Commission, Common Market of the South (Mercosur),
admitted on Monday an application to review democratic conditions in Venezuela,
substantiated with the violent events occurred after the presidential election of April 14
and the detention of Retired General Antonio Rivero."
On July 20, 2013.
Venezuela ends rapprochement with the United States.
"The Venezuelan government criticized Washington's endorsement of the remarks made by United Nations Ambassador Nominee Samantha Power,
who voiced concern about the issue of human rights in Venezuela.
"Venezuela ends the process initiated in Guatemala talks", Caracas said late Friday in a communiqué."
On July 25, 2013.
Simonovis taken to the Military Hospital for health problems.
the ex chief of the Judicial Technical Police sentenced to 30-year imprisonment in connection with the events of April 11, 2002,
was taken on Thursday to Caracas Military Hospital because of health problems.
On August 20, 2013.
Capriles: 'If passed, Venezuelans would disregard the Enabling Law'.
"The Constitution backs all Venezuelans up in disregarding those powers that would not exist,
because they would be grounded on an utter violation.
The Constitution itself forces us to enforce it",
opposition leader Henrique Capriles stated on Tuesday on his live web show Venezuela Somos Todos ("Venezuela is all of us")
On October 11, 2013,
Reporters Without Borders shares the concerns voiced by organizations that represent journalists and media workers about the government’s
7 October decree creating a new intelligence agency called the Strategic Centre for Homeland Security and Protection, or CESPPA.
On November 14, 2013.
Enabling Law approved with 99 votes in its first reading.
Until Tuesday, the Government relied on 98 votes only to approve the law whereas opposition legislators totaled 67.
However, the inconvenience was overcome two days ago after the revocation of opposition Deputy María Aranguren's parliamentary immunity.
On December 5, 2013.
CNE director: 'This is the most outrageous campaign in Venezuelan history'.
The municipal election campaign is "the most outrageous campaign Venezuela ever had in many years; I'd dare say in Venezuelan history",
said Vicente Díaz, a member of the board of the National Electoral Council (CNE).
[There will be municipal elections on December 8, 2013]
On December 8, 2013.
Voters turnout in Venezuelan local election hits 58.92%.
The President of the National Electoral Council (CNE), Tibisay Lucena, announced on Sunday the preliminary results of the municipal vote,
with 97.52% of results transmission. She reported that voters turnout nationwide hit 58.92%.
"Out of 355 municipalities, there is an irreversible trend in 257," Lucena noted.
She outlined that ruling party United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) got 196 out of 335 mayor's offices,
while opposition alliance Unified Democratic Panel (MUD) got 53.
Nationwide, the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) got 4,584,477 votes (44.16%); MUD, 4,252,082 votes (40.96),
the Communist Party of Venezuela, 167,049 votes (1.6%) and other political parties got 1,376,056 votes (13.26%).
In Caracas, Venezuela's capital,
the opposition alliance MUD candidates won the mayor's office of the Metropolitan Area of Caracas, and Baruta, Chacao, El Hatillo, and Sucre.
Meanwhile, the Libertador mayor's office will continue under the leadership of ruling party PSUV.
On December 8, 2013.
the Government did not get the majority of votes,
even though the first reports released by the National Electoral Council (CNE) may make us think otherwise.
It turns out that the PSUV (the Government’s party) and the PCV (a left-wing party supporting the Government)
reaped 5,111,336 votes (or 49.24% of valid ballots),
whereas the MUD and its allies plus other parties standing against the Government obtained 5,268,828 votes (or 50.76%).
On January 22, 2014.
Human Rights Watch lists Venezuela as 'feigned democracy'.
Based on this category prepared by Kenneth Roth, the CEO of Human Rights Watch, Venezuela appears in a chapter entitled Rights Struggles of 2013,
along with Egypt, Tunisia, Turkey, Burma, Thailand, Kenya, Russia, Ukraine and China.
On February 13, 2014.
Bench warrant against Venezuelan opposition leader Leopoldo López.
The capture of the founder of opposition political Voluntad Popular (People's Will, VP) party, Leopoldo López,
on the grounds of his alleged liability for the violent events occurred in Caracas on Wednesday has been ordered.
On Wednesday evening, Caracas 16th Control Judge Ralenys Tovar Guillén admitted the petition made by the Attorney General Office
to detain the ex Chacao mayor and ordered the Bolivarian Intelligence Service (Sebin)
to apprehend him and enter his residence for the purposes of conducting a search, police sources reported.
Under warrant of arrest N 007-14, the judge ordered to capture López to sue him for a wide array of offenses, ranging from conspiracy,
solicitation to commit a crime, public intimidation, fire of public premises, damages of public property, murder and terrorism.
On February 18, 2014.
Leopoldo López turns himself over to National Guard officers.
The leader of opposition party Voluntad Popular Leopoldo López turned himself in to officers of the National Guard at noon on Tuesday,
a few minutes after he finished his speech before hundreds of dissenters gathered in Chacaíto, northeast Caracas.
Cierre de vías 24F:
Users report closure of roadways since early hours in the morning of February 24.
In the social networks during all of Sunday 23 there was a call for the closure of roadways with the hash tag "#24FGranBarricadaNacional".
On February 26, 2014.
OAS to hold special meeting on the Venezuelan crisis.
The Organization of American States (OAS) is to discuss on Thursday Panama's proposal
to convene a meeting with the ambassadors of each Member State to find a solution to the crisis in Venezuela,
where anti-Government demonstrations have resulted in 14 people dead in three weeks.
On February 26, 2014.
OAS puts off meeting of the Permanent Council about Venezuela.
Venezuelan Ambassador to the Organization of American States Roy Chaderton sent a letter to the OAS secretary General
to suspend the meeting on grounds that it is up to Venezuela to convene such a meeting in the absence of the chair of the Permanent Council.
On February 28, 2014.
Students will remain in the streets despite military repression.
Caracas' takeover will be held on Sunday.
"No carnival for anybody here; we will continue in the streets.
On Sunday, we will walk up to Brión square (eastern Caracas)", exclaimed Juan Requesens, the president of the Federation of Student Councils,
Central University of Venezuela (UCV).
Earlier, he had said once again that students will keep up demonstrating as long as all students are released and justice is administered.
Visit sites from both groups to inform your opinion, but ...
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(See the section on PC Security)
www.aporrea.org aporrea.org - Venezuela "Agencia popular alternativa de noticias"
autonomiaislamicawayuu.blogspot.com Autonomia Islámica Wayuu "Hezbollah Venezuela", Teodoro Darnott
www.geocities.com/antiescual/index2.html Cibernéticos Bolivarianos El Portal Bolivariano [disabled]
www.angelfire.com/nb/17m/ Círculo Bolivariano 17 de Marzo
Página de apoyo al proceso de cambios liderado por Hugo Chávez Frías
www.geocities.com/circulobolivarianocr/ Círculo Bolivariano Abre Brecha Parroquia 23 de Enero [disabled]
www.cabron.com/cbc/ Círculo Bolivariano de Cincinati (Cincinnati Bolivarian Circle - The Red Machine)
www.geocities.com/contragobernanza/ Contragobernanza "Contra el Gobierno de las Empresas" [disabled]
www.el23.net el 23 barrios, callejones y sueños
www.elmilitante.org El Militante Corriente Marxista Internacional
- www.luchadeclases.org.ve Lucha de Clases (Venezuela)
www.frentefranciscodemiranda.org.ve Frente Francisco de Miranda [disabled]
www.globalexchange.org Global Exchange "Building People-to-People Ties"
www.handsoffvenezuela.org Hands Off Venezuela! "In Solidarity with the Venezuelan Revolution"
www.iglesiacatolicareformada.com Iglesia Catolica Reformada de Venezuela
www.lasverdadesdemiguel.net Las Verdades de Miguel (Miguel Salazar)
www.observatoriodemedios.org.ve Observatorio Global de Medios de Venezuela
www.ojoelectoral.org/index.php Ojo Electoral (Asociación Civil)
www.alternativabolivariana.org Portal ALBA-TCP "Alternativa Bolivariana para la América"
www.chavezcode.com Postcards from the Revolution (Eva Golinger)
www.radiodefensavenezuela.com Radio Defensa Venezuela (Jesús R. Soto)
www.venezuelanalysis.com Venezuelanalysis.com "On line News, Views and Analysis from Venezuela"
www.rethinkvenezuela.com Venezuela Information Office (VIO)
"to educate the public about contemporary Venezuela" [disabled]
vheadlinevenezuelanews.blogspot.com - VHeadline Venezuela News en Español, Roy S. Carson
www.vheadline.com - VHeadline: News & Views about Venezuela, Roy S. Carson
Today's crude oil price, change, % change (WTI $/bbl)
Crude oil prices for the month, quarter, year, or 5-year period (WTI $/bbl)
[Venezuelan crude oil sells at a price lower than West Texas Intermediate (WTI)]
Create a new Time Zone, i.e. "New Time Zone VE", for GMT - 4:30 hrs.
Activate it (when it is in effect) from the Control Panel - Date and Time - Time Zone.
This time zone change backs your clock, and advances all astronomical events, in 30 minutes.
This is the original time zone for the Legal Time in Venezuela,
adopted in 1912 and based on the meridian of Villa de Cura (Longitude 67.5° W, Estado Aragua).
It replaced the meridian based on Punta de Playa (Longitude 60° W, Estado Delta Amacuro)
adopted in 1965 for GMT - 4 hrs.
Longitude on Earth is related to Local Time:
360° of Longitude equal 24 hours, this is; 1 hour equals 15° of Longitude (360/24 = 15).
67.5° of Longitude equal 4.5 hours (67.5/15 = 4.5).
With a time zone of GMT - 4 hrs, in 2007:
The Sun is zenital over Caracas on April 17 at 12:27, and August 26 at 12:29. *
The earliest sunrise occurs on May 30 at 06:04, and the latest on January 27 at 06:51. +
The earliest sunset occurs on November 18 at 18:01, and the latest on July 13 at 18:54. +
[All these events would be advanced by 30 minutes with the Time Zone GMT - 4:30 hrs]
With a time zone of GMT - 4:30 hrs, in 2007:
The earliest sunset would occur on November 18 at 17:31. +