Venezuela - Links


Venezuela - General Links
Venezuelan Directories in the World-Wide-Web
Internet Service Providers in Venezuela
Venezuelan Government
Venezuelan Communications Media
Crisis in Venezuela: (From 1992)
  Presidential Election 1998
  General Elections 2000
  2002 - Hugo Chávez Resignation and Return
  2004 - Referendum to revoque the rule of Hugo Chávez
  Presidential Election 2006
  Constitutional Referendum 2007
  Constitutional Amendment Referendum 2009
  2011 - Chávez under cancer treatment in Cuba
  Presidential Election 2012
  Presidential Election 2013
  2014 - The Youth Rebelion
  Most Recent Crisis Article
Results:
  "Officialist" Politics
  The Opposite Side of the Coin, Blogs
International Press and Opinion
Human Rights in Venezuela
Crude oil price
New Time Zone for Venezuela (GMT - 4.5 hrs)

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Venezuela - General Links:

Alfredo Keller y Asociados (Investigación de mercado y opinión pública, análisis y planificación)
Asociación Venezolana para el Avance de la Ciencia (AsoVAC) Caracas
Asociación Venezolana para el Avance de la Ciencia (AsoVAC) Carabobo
Asociación Venezolana para el Avance de la Ciencia (AsoVAC) Mérida
Asociación Venezolana para el Avance de la Ciencia (AsoVAC) Capítulo Oriental
a-venezuela.com (Viajar en Venezuela)
Avior Airlines
AVTEK (Electrical Protection Products)
bab.la A language portal available in 27 languages - with 38 bilingual dictionaries
Banesco - Banco Universal
BanPlus Valores
BBVA Banco Provincial
Bolsa de Valores de Caracas
Cámara Petrolera de Venezuela
Cámara Venezolano-Americana de Comercio e Industria (VenAmCham)
Carlos Ferrán Urdaneta
Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo (CENDES) Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV)
Comunidad Andina
Confederación de Asociaciones Israelitas de Venezuela (CAIV)
Confederación Venezolana de Industriales (Conindustria)
Consejo Episcopal Latinoamericano (CELAM)
Consejo Nacional de Promoción de Inversiones (CONAPRI)
Consultores 21
Corporación Internacional de Protección Integral, C.A. (CORINPROINCA)
Datanalisis (Investigación de mercados, Información sobre el entorno económico, político y social)
Datamática (Investigación de Mercados y Opinión Pública)
Datos information resources (Investigación de mercados, Información sobre el entorno económico, político y social)
D'empaire Reyna Bermúdez Abogados (DRB) (Legal Information)
Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) (United Nations)
Embajada de la India en Venezuela
Embassy of the United States in Caracas, Venezuela
F-1 Live
Federación de Cámaras y Asociaciones de Comercio y Producción de Venezuela (FEDECAMARAS)
Fe y Alegría Movimiento de Educación Popular Integral y Promoción Social
Fundación Centro Gumilla (Investigación y Acción Social de la Compañía de Jesús en Venezuela)
Fundación Empresas Polar
Fundación La Tortuga (Protección del medio ambiente y su biodiversidad)
Fundación para la Prevencíon de la Violencia Doméstica hacia la Mujer (FUNDAMUJER)
Grupo G.A.N.B. (Security and Fire Protection Systems)
Historia de la Isla de Margarita, Mariano de Briceño, 1885
Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administración (IESA)
J.J. Rendón & Asociados (Estrategia política)
Linea Aerea de Servicio Ejecutivo Regional (LASER) C.A.
Lonely Planet World Guide: Destination Venezuela (Travel Guide)
Mapas de Venezuela (a-venezuela.com)
Me Quiero Ir (Vivir, trabajar y estudiar en Estados Unidos, Canadá, Australia y España)
Meteorología en Venezuela (Luis Mujica)
Observatorio ARVAL (Astronomy)
 - Meteorology for South Florida and the Caribbean
Organización Nacional de Salvamento y Seguridad Marítima de los espacios Acuáticos de Venezuela (ONSA)
Organización Rescate Humboldt
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Patricia Van Dalen
Real Academia Española (Diccionarios del Idioma Español)
 - Diccionario de la lengua española
 - Diccionario panhispánico de dudas
RESCARVEN (Servicios Médicos)
Ricardo Baez Duarte: Ineffable ideas and reflections
Serigrafías Neira C.A.
Smartmatic "Technology Solutions - All Things Connected"
Sociedad Mundial del Futuro Venezuela (SMF Venezuela)
Sovica Electronics (Sistemas de seguridad)
Transparencia Venezuela (Lucha contra la corrupción)
TuCarro.com (Compra y venta de carros usados)
United Nations
Universidad Alejandro de Humboldt (UAH)
Universidad Católica Andrés Bello (UCAB)
 - Centro de Derechos Humanos
 - PolítiKa Ucab
Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV)
Universidad de Los Andes (ULA)
Universidad de Carabobo (UC)
Universidad de Oriente (UDO) - Núcleo de Sucre
Universidad del Zulia (LUZ)
Universidad Metropolitana (UNIMET)
Universidad Monteávila
Universidad Nueva Esparta (UNE)
Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB)
Venezuela Competitiva
Venezuela en la Universidad de Texas
Venezuela in the CIA World Factbook
Venezuela Maps (U. of Texas, Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection)
Venezuelan-American Chamber of Commerce of the United States (VACC)
Venezuelan Council for Investment Promotion (CONAPRI)
Venezuela Tuya (Travel in Venezuela)
Veniños (Venezuelan Children In Need)
WebMedia de Venezuela (Internet Marketing)
World Digital Library (UNESCO)
World Tel-Fax Electronics (WTFE) (Infoline)

See the links for Venezuelan astronomy sites at Observatorio ARVAL - Astro Links



Venezuelan Directories in the World-Wide-Web:

Auyantepui (Venezuelan WWW Directory, with search engine. Soon in English)
Infoguía Web
Todos los periódicos diarios de Venezuela (Prensa Escrita)



Internet Service Providers in Venezuela:

AT&T Global Network Services
CANTV [nationalized on May 22, 2007]
Movilnet
MSN Latinoamérica - Access
TELCEL.NET
Tutopia

Internet Traffic Report - S. America



Venezuelan Government:

Armada de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Asamblea Nacional de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Banco Bicentenario - Banco Universal
Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV)
Banco de Desarrollo Económico y Social de Venezuela (BANDES)
Banco de Venezuela
Banco Industrial de Venezuela (BIV)
C.A. Metro de Caracas
CANTV - Telecomunicaciones de Venezuela [nationalized on May 22, 2007]
 - Movilnet - Telefonía Celular
Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA)
Centro Nacional de Tecnologías de Información (CNTI)
CITGO Petroleum Corporation
Comisión de Administración de Divisas (CADIVI)
Comisión Nacional de Telecomunicaciones (CONATEL)
Consejo Moral Republicano (Poder Ciudadano)
Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)
Contraloría General de la República
Corporación Eléctrica Nacional (CORPOELEC)
Corporación Venezolana de Guayana (CVG)
Defensoria del Pueblo
Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in the U.S.
Fondo de Garantía de Depósitos y Protección Bancaria (FOGADE)
Fundación Televisora de La Asamblea Nacional (ANTV)
Fundacite Táchira
Galería de Arte Nacional (GAN)
Gobierno en Línea
Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE)
Instituto Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología (INAMEH)
Instituto Nacional de Tránsito y Transporte Terrestre (INTTT)
Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC)
Ministerio de Planificación y Finanzas
Ministerio del Poder Popular de Petróleo y Minería
Ministerio del Poder Popular del Despacho de la Presidencia
Ministerio del Poder Popular para Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (MCTI)
Ministerio del Poder Popular para el Ambiente
Ministerio del Poder Popular para el Comercio
Ministerio del Poder Popular para el Transporte Acuático y Aéreo
Ministerio del Poder Popular para el Transporte Terrestre (MPPTT)
Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Alimentación
Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Comunicación e Información (MinCI)
Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Defensa
 - Milicia Bolivariana
Ministerio del Poder Popular para las Comunas y Movimientos Sociales
Ministerio del Poder Popular para las Industrias y el Comercio (MPPILCO)
Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores (MPPRE)
Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Interiores, Justicia y Paz
Ministerio Público (MP) (Fiscalía)
Misión Permanente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela ante las Naciones Unidas
Oficina de Planificación del Sector Universitario
Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA)
Proteccion Civil y Administración de Desastres
Servicio Administrativo de Identificación, Migración y Extranjería (SAIME)
Servicio de Hidrografía y Navegación
Servicio de Meteorología de La Aviación
Servicio Nacional Integrado de Información Tributaria (SENIAT)
Siderúrgica del Orinoco (SIDOR)
Superintendencia de Inversiones Extranjeras (SIEX)
Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (TSJ)
 - Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela (Diciembre 30, 1999)
Venezuela's Constitution of 1999 with Amendments through 2009 (14 Oct 2013. constituteproject.org)
Vicepresidencia de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Vive (Televisora educativa, cultural e informativa)



Venezuelan Communications Media:
(now under a "Gag Law")
See Freedom of expression threatened by legislative reforms being rushed through parliament (Reporters Without Borders, 22 December 2010)

ABC de la Semana (Semanario Venezolano - Noticias, Política, Geopolítica, Latinoamérica)
Agencia Venezolana de Noticias (AVN) [government controlled]
AhoraVision (Noticias de Venezuela al instante)
Analítica.com (Emilio Figueredo)
 - Sección: Editorial
Bloque Dearmas (Armando de Armas)
Canal-i (UHF TV, Caracas)
Circuito Nacional Belfort (CNB) - 95.3FM - Mérida (Radio)
Colegio Nacional de Periodistas de Venezuela (CNP) - Seccional Caracas
Confirmado
Correo del Caroní (Ciudad Guayana) [Without a printed edition due to the government blocade.
The legislature of the Estado Bolívar ordered their building to be condemned and demolished.]

Descifrado (Juan Carlos Zapata)
Diario 2001
Diario El Carabobeño
Diario El Impulso (Barquisimeto)
Diario El Mundo
Diario El Nacional
Diario El Tiempo (Valera)
Diario El Universal (with the Daily News English Section) [Bought in July 2014 by Epalisticia S.L. (Spain)]
Diario Informe (Periodismo de investigación y análisis político)
Diario La Verdad (Maracaibo)
Diario La Voz
Diario Notitarde (Valencia)
Diario Panorama (Maracaibo)
Diario Últimas Noticias
Diario VEA [government controlled]
Diario Versión Final (Maracaibo)
El Diario de Caracas
El Diario de Los Andes (Trujillo, Táchira, Mérida)
El Periódico Venezolano (Noticias 24 horas al día de Venezuela)
El Tiempo (El Periódico del Pueblo Oriental)
El Sol de Margarita (Porlamar)
Espacio Público (Asociación Civil)
Gentiuno - Gente del Siglo XXI
 - Carlos Alberto Montaner escribe...
 - Mercedes Montero
 - Trinchera (Eleonora Bruzual)
Globovisión TV (Television and News, with Free Live Signal) [bought by the government on May 2 '13]
infoCIUDADANO (Revista Colaborativa)
 - ebook "Por sus frutos los conocerán" (Textos sobre el legado de la Revolución Bolivariana, 1999-2012)
La Hora Digital (Porlamar)
LaPatilla.com (Información e Investigación)
La Prensa de Barinas
La Red, el Periódico de Internet
Latin American Herald Tribune (News for the English-reading public about Latin America)
 - VenEconomy: Yes, There Are Political Prisoners in Venezuela!
Meridiano Diario y Televisión (TV Sports)
Noticias24 [government controlled]
NoticiasCentro (Editor Rodolfo Schmidt)
Noticias Venezuela (El acontecer de Venezuela y el Mundo)
Noticiero Digital (Primer portal de periodismo digital de Venezuela)
 - Foros de Noticiero Digital
Opinión y Noticias (Iván R. Méndez, Director de Contenido)
PetroleumWorld.com (Latin American Energy, Oil & Gas)
Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV) - rctv.net [From May 28 '07 the RCTV frequency will be used by the government to establish TVes, a "public service television". On May 26 '07 the Tribunal Supremo de Justicia illegally ordered all RCTV transmission equipment temporarily under government custody for the use of TVes.]
[From July 16 '07 to January 24 '10 Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV) could be seen on private subscription carriers DirectTV, Intercable, Net Uno, Planet Cable, and Supercable. No more!]
Radio Nacional de Venezuela (RNV) [government controlled]
RadioNexx La Voz de la Libertad (with Free Live TV Signal)
Reporte Confidencial (Periodismo Investigativo Audaz)
Reportero24
SuperMúsica Radio (El Portal Musical Adulto Contemporáneo)
Tal Cual Digital (Teodoro Petkoff)
Televen TV
Unión Radio
Vale TV (Valores Educativos Televisión, Arzobispado de Caracas)
VenEconomy (and VenEconomía)
VeneTubo (Noticias y Videos de Venezuela)
Venevisión
 - Noticiero Venevisión.net  [Politics, Economy, etc.]
Venezolana de Televisión (VTV) [government controlled]
Venezuela al Día
webarticulista.net (Una lectura sin compromisos)




Crisis in Venezuela:

On February 4, 1992. Hugo Chávez led a failed military coup and murder attempt against president Carlos Andrés Pérez and his family, causing the deaths of many Venezuelans.
Thus started his career as a coupster ....
[Hugo Chávez, Wikipedia.org] (incomplete in Spanish)

On March 26, 1994. After 2 years in prison, president Rafaél Caldera decided the dismissal of the cause against Hugo Chávez, and released him with his immediate accomplices. On December 14, Hugo Chávez visited Fidel Castro in La Habana.
Thus started his career as a Castro-communist ....

On December 6, 1998. Hugo Chávez was elected president with 60% of the votes (40% Enrique Salas Römer, 46% abstention) and was inaugurated in February 2, 1999. Chávez took the legal oath of office "on a dying constitution" that he "would not respect".
On March 10, 1999, he called an election for a Constituent Assembly, where his supporters got 95% of the positions with just 30% of the votes.
Thus started his dictatorial career and the opposition to it ....
On December 15, 1999, the new constitution was approved, with 72% of the votes and 56% abstention. After the voting, and after weeks of continual rains on the coastal mountains North of Venezuela, mudslides killed about 30,000 people that were never evacuated.
[Mr. Chávez's Power Grab, New York Times - Editorial, August 22, 2007]

On July 30, 2000. General elections were held. Chávez's coalition got 66% of the seats in the National Assembly, while Chávez was reelected with 60% of the votes (38% Francisco Arias Cárdenas, 44% abstention). The Carter Center monitored the election; their report stated that, due to lack of transparency, perceived partiality of the Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE; "National Electoral Council"), and political pressure from the Chávez government that resulted in early elections, they were unable to validate the official CNE results. However, they concluded that the presidential election legitimately expressed the will of the people.
[Observing Political Change en Venezuela: The Bolivarian Constitution and the 2000 Elections, Final Report, Laura Neuman and Jennifer McCoy, Carter Center, February 2001 (.pdf)]
Thus started his career of electoral fraud ....
On August 2000, Hugo Chávez visited Saddam Hussein in Bagdad.
[Hugo Chávez, Wikipedia.org] (incomplete in Spanish)

On April 11, 2002. A gigantic protest march in defense of the independence of Petróleos de Venezuela resulted in 19 death and 150 injured by bullets. The military high command disobeyed orders from Hugo Chávez to attack the protestors, and asked for his resignation, "which he accepted", according to General Lucas Rincón (now Ambassador to Portugal). On April 11, 2002, Hugo Chávez was returned to the presidency by a military faction led by General Raúl Isaías Baduel.
[Political Crisis in Venezuela, Human Rights Watch - Background Briefing, July 2002]
[Los primeros meses de 2002, Memorias de un Obispo, Monseñor Baltazar Porras, .pdf, 1.23 MB]
[On June 24, 2006 Baduel was promoted to General in Chief and appointed Minister of Defense. On July 18, 2007, Baduel was retired and resigned as Minister to begin opposing Chávez.]

45.5% of the Venezuelan population; 10.8 million people, now live in poverty.
[BBC Mundo | América Latina | Economía, Julio 10, 2002] (in Spanish, there is no English version)

On February/March 2003. Hugo Chávez, fired 18,756 managers, engineers, technicians and qualified workers from Petróleos de Venezuela which had opposed the politization of that company supporting the general strike of December 2002 and January 2003 (including 69% of the managers). Petróleos de Venezuela then forbade their employment by the contractors.

55.1% of the Venezuelan population; 14.9 million people, by the end of 2003 lived in poverty.
[Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) - Reporte Social, Octubre 2004] (now recalculated to 47%)

On May 14, 2004. the National Assembly, with just a simple majority, illegally increased from 20 to 32, the number of judges in the Supreme Justice Tribunal to give Hugo Chávez control over the judiciary.
[Venezuela: Chávez Allies Pack Supreme Court, Human Rights Watch, 14-12-2004]

On August 15, 2004. a referendum was held to try and revoque the rule of Hugo Chávez. After a massive fraud, he declared himself the winner with 60% of the votes and the approval of the Carter Center and the Organization of American States (OAS).
[Fraud against Democracy - The Venezuelan Case, T. Álvarez, F. Malpica, J.D. Mujica, J. Casado, .pdf, October 15, 2004]
[The Venezuela Presidential Recall Referendum: Final Reports, Carter Center, 25 Feb 2005]
[In Search of the Black Swan Analysis of the Statistical Evidence of Electoral Fraud in Venezuela
(Study by R. Haussman and R. Rigobón, .pdf, Feb 3 '09)]
[Report on an Analysis of the Representativeness of the Second Audit Sample, and the Correlation Between Petition Signers and the Yes Vote in the Aug. 15, 2004, Presidential Recall Referendum (Carter Center, .pdf)]
[The Carter report on the Hausmann-Rigobon Analysis is bereft of any statistical basis (.pdf, Sep 17 '04)]
[Un Fraude Largamente Preparado, urru.org, documents in Spanish, English, and French]
The names of those Venezuelans that signed for the referendum where published by the nacional assembly member Luis Tascón, thus started his career of political purges ....
[Luis Tascón Wikipedia]
[Analysis of the 2004 Venezuela Referendum: the Official Results versus the Petition Signatures Gustavo Andres Delfino, and Guillermo Alejandro Salas, Institute of Mathematical Statistics]
[El Referéndum Revocatorio Presidencial de 2004 en Venezuela EsData.info]


A statistical study done by two Venezuelan scientists, Maria M. Febres Cordero and Bernardo Marquez, has determined that Hugo Chavez alleged victory in the recall referendum of 2004 was unlikely. The report concludes by saying "the Venezuelan opposition has statistical evidence to reject the official results given by the CNE. The irregularities detected were observed consistently in numerous voting centers and the magnitude of the irregularities implies that the official results do not reflect the intention of voters with statistical confidence."
[Study shows how Hugo Chavez rigged elections in Venezuela By Alek Boyd, 22.02.07. A statistical approach to assess referendum results: The Venezuelan recall referendum 2004. Cordero, Márquez, 2006]

Venezuela Presidential Referendum - Statistical Analysis, May 2006:

A statistical approach to assess referendum results: The Venezuelan recall referendum 2004

Maria M. Febres Cordero and Bernardo Márquez
Independent Consultants

Summary

This article presents a statistical approach to assess the coherence of official results of referendum processes. The statistical analysis described is divided in four phases, according to the methodology used and the corresponding results:
(1) Initial Study, (2) Quantification of irregular certificates of election, (3) Identification of irregular voting centers and (4) Estimation of recall referendum results.
The technique of cluster analysis is applied to address the issue of heterogeneity of the parishes with respect to their political preferences.
The Venezuelan recall referendum 2004 is the case study we used to apply the proposed methodology, based on the data published by the "Consejo Nacional Electoral" (CNE-National Electoral Council). Finally, we present the conclusions of the study which we summarize as follows: The percentage of irregular certificates of election is between 22.2% and 26.5% of the total; 18% of the voting centers show an irregular voting pattern in their certificates of election, the votes corresponding to this irregularity are around 2,550,000; The result estimate, using the unbiased votes as representative of the population for the percentage of YES votes against President Chávez is 56.4% as opposed to the official result of 41%.

Venezuela Presidential Referendum - Statistical Analysis, May 2006
[http://vcrisis.com/Venezuela Presidential Referendum - Statistical Analysis May-2006.pdf]

[See also Referendum Revocatorio: Análisis Estadístico (María Mercedes Febres Cordero, Bernardo Marquez y Alejandro Troya, in urru.org)]


For the first quarter of 2005, household poverty is in 38.5% and extreme poverty at 10.1% (sic).
[Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) - La Pobreza, Octubre 2005] (now recalculated to 37.9%)

Between 1998 and 2005, homicides have grown 128%, kidnappings in 426%, executions and gang murders in 253%, on a national level.
[Homicides in Venezuela jumped 128% for the period 1998-2005] (Vcrisis, 05.09.2006)

Since 1998 the industrial sector has decreased almost 40% (of 11,117 industries then, only 6,756 remain in 2007).
[Confederación Venezolana de Industriales (Conindustria), "Cerco empresarial 2007"]

Unemployment among the young is 18.4%, twice the national average.
More than 60% of the active labor population only have informal employment.
[La Exclusión laboral, Juan Martín Echeverría, El Universal, October 1 '06, in Venezuela Real]

Lack of confidence in the electoral system, resulting in more than 75% of abstention on December 2005, giving Hugo Chávez 100% of the National Assembly.
[See the pages of Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)]


On December 3, 2006, Hugo Chávez declared himself reelected with some 63% of the votes,
against Manuel Rosales (Un Nuevo Tiempo) with 37%, and 26% of abstention.
11,777,126 votes counted, 99%, on December 18 '06.
[See the pages of Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE)]
[See The Systematic Annihilation of the Right to Vote in Venezuela EsData.info, 2007, .pdf]

And, on January 31, 2007, Hugo Chávez was granted dictatorial powers to legislate for 18 months by the Asamblea Nacional de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela.

Accordding to the Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV), inflation in Venezuela between May 2006 and May 2007 was the largest in Latinamerica: 19.5%.


From May 28, 2007. The frequency of Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV) is being used by the government to establish TVes, a "public service television". On May 26 '07 the Tribunal Supremo de Justicia illegally ordered all RCTV transmission equipment temporarily under government custody for the use of TVes.
[This measure is generating protests around the country]
[From July 16 '07 Radio Caracas Televisión (RCTV) can be seen on private subscription carriers DirectTV, Intercable, Net Uno, Planet Cable, and Supercable]


2006 PDVSA revenue fell nearly 16% from 2005, the local profits fell more than 65% while our oil prices rose more than 19%, social expences almost duplicated to $13,781 million, according to their audited financial statements presented Friday 7, September '07.
[See El Universal, Marianna Párraga, Septiembre 11, 2007]


On December 2, 2007. Hugo Chávez ilegally submitted to a referendum a new constitution; Communist and even more presidentialist than the one from the Constituent Assembly of 1999, permitting his continued reelection and restricting human rights and private property.
Human Rights are inalienable, and a fundamental change in the constitution can only be made by a Constituent Assembly, never by a minority in a referendum.
[See Venezuela - President for life in Economist.com]
[See List of proposed changes in Venezuela referendum MiamiHerald.com, 12-02-2007]
[See Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations)]
[This measure generated protests around the country]
[On November 5, 2007, Retired General Raúl Isaías Baduel rejected the new constitution, calling it a "fraud"]

At 01:15 on December 3, the CNE announced that the new constitution was rejected 51% vs 49%, with 44% abstention (with just 9,002,439 votes counted).
[See Venezuela Hands Narrow Defeat to Chávez Plan in The New York Times]
[See CNE - Resultados]
Thus started his career as a looser ....

See Venezuelans Deny Chávez Additional Authority (Washington Post, Juan Forero, December 3, 2007)
See Chávez Chastened in Venezuela Vote (Washington Post, Juan Forero, December 4, 2007)
See Chávez Turns Bitter Over His Defeat in Referendum (Washington Post, Juan Forero, Dec. 6, 2007)


After more than 45 days since the referendum on the constitutional reform,
Asociación Civil Súmate demands the CNE publishes the definitive results.

See Hay serias incongruencias en resultados del CNE sobre el referéndum constitucional (.pdf, Ene. 20 '08)
Informe Súmate - Referéndo Sobre Proyecto de Reforma Constitucional (.pdf, Ene. 24 '08)

On April 2, 2008. More than 122 days after the referendum, 1.8 milion votes remain uncounted.
[See Lucena y sus Cuentos de Camino in Venezuela Real: Óscar Lucien, El Nacional, 4 de Abril 2008]

By December 1, 2008, these 1.8 milion votes remain uncounted.




A sample from the proposed new constitution; from article 136:
"The people are depositaries of the sovereignty and exercise it directly through the Popular Power. This is not born from suffrage or any election, but is born from the condition of the human groups organized as the base of the population."
[See Reforma Constitucional in Venezuela Real]
This contradicts article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations):
"The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures."

The new article 337 allows the president to declare a "state of exception" and temporarily suspend the right to due judicial process, violating articles 10 and 11 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations).
[See Reforma Constitucional in Asamblea Nacional de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela]

On October 24 '07 the Asamblea Nacional added a "right to a defense" in the new article 337.
[See Parlamento aprobó artículo de los estados de excepción in Asamblea Nacional de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela]
[But see also article 337 of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (December 30, 1999), where the "right to due process" is much more than a "right to a defense"]




From the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (December 30, 1999):

Article 25:
Any act on the part of the Public Power that violates or encroaches upon the rights guaranteed by this Constitution and by law is null and void, and the public employees ordering or implementing the same shall incur criminal, civil and administrative liability, as applicable in each case, with no defense on grounds of having followed the orders of a superior.

Article 333:
This Constitution shall not cease to be in effect if it ceases to be observed due to acts of force or because of repeal in any manner other than as provided for herein.
In such eventuality, every citizen, whether or not vested with official authority, has a duty to assist in bringing it back into actual effect.

Article 350:
The people of Venezuela, true to their republican tradition and their struggle for independence, peace and freedom, shall disown any regime, legislation or authority that violates democratic values, principles and guarantees or encroaches upon human rights.




On January 12, 2008. Hugo Chávez said in his annual report before the National Assembly, that the FARC and ELN "are insurgent forces with a political project that is respected here". His National Assembly, sheepishly approved.
[See ESPECIAL: Chávez presentó su Informe en la AN in Noticias24]


On February 25, 2008. Clodosbaldo Russián, the general comptroller, filed before the directors of the CNE a list of 400 public officials inconstitucionally disabled by his office to opt for popularly elected office. None of the included will be able to run in the 2008 regional elections. Among these are the opposition leaders Leopoldo López, Enrique Mendoza, Oscar Pérez, Enrique Ochoa Antich and Alfredo Peña.
[See Contralor llevó al CNE la lista de 400 inhabilitados para postularse in El Universal]


On March 3, 2008. General Oscar Naranjo, head of the Colombian National Police, unveiled documents seized from guerrilla leader Raúl Reyes, who was killed last Saturday by the Colombian Army, which show an alliance, old contacts and even financial aid between the rebel Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC) and Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez.
[See Colombia Discloses Documentes linking Chávez to the FARC in El Universal Daily News]
[See Alleged Chavez's Call to Reyes Revealed Location of FARC Camp in El Universal Daily News]
[See Forensic report requested by Colombia on seized FARC computers and hardware INTERPOL, May 15 '08]


Venezuela increased its arms imports dramatically in 2003-2007, taking it from the 56th biggest importer in the world in 1998-2002, to the 24th place. Some 92% of Venezuela's imports came from Russia.
International Arms Transfers Database, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).


On May 28, 2008.

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías President of the Republic

On exercise of the attributions conferred on him by numeral 8 of article 236 of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and in conformity with numeral 9 of article 1 of the Law authorizing the President of the Republic to dictate Decrees with Rank, Value and Force of Law on the matters that are delegated, ....

DICTATES the following,

DECREE WITH RANK, VALUE AND FORCE OF LAW
OF THE NATIONAL SYSTEM OF INTELLIGENCE AND COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
....

CHAPTER I - GENERAL DISPOSITIONS
....

Range of application
....

Article 2.-
The norms and principles contained in this Decree with Rank, Value and Force of Law are of mandatory compliance for:
....
5. Every person that in the course of his activities inside or outside of the national territory has or has access to information of strategic interest for the Nation.
....

CHAPTER III - OF THE SUBSYSTEMS
....

Organs of Support

Article 16.- Organs of Support to the activities of intelligence and counterintelligence are, the natural and juridic persons, from public and private law, nationals or foreigners, just as the organs and entities of the national public administration, states, municipalities, the social networks, organizations of popular participation and organized communities, when their cooperation is solicited for the obtention of information or technical support, by the organs with special jurisdiction.

The persons that do not comply with the obligations established in this article are responsible in comformity with the Organic Law of Security of the Nation, and other acts of legal and sublegal rank applicable on the matter, because such conduct threatens the security, defense and integral development of the Nation.

....

Complete text of the Law of the National System of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, at Control Ciudadano. In English, translated from the Gaceta Oficial number 38,940, dated May 28, 2008.

On June 7, 2008. Hugo Chávez admitted that this law "overreaches" and will be reformed.
On June 10, 2008, he recalled this law.


On June 17, 2008. Twenty seven Venezuelan groups started an international campaign supporting a petition presented to the International Penal Court (IPC) in Le Hague to investigate and judge president Hugo Chávez for his alleged ties to the FARC.
[See Venezuela Offered Aid to Colombian Rebels (Washington Post, Juan Forero, May 15, 2008)]
[See Frente Patriótico - Comunicado, 19 de Diciembre de 2008]

Please sign the petition:
Investigacion por la Corte Penal Internacional de la relación Hugo Chávez-FARC


On July 31, 2008. Hugo Chávez inconstitucionally dictated 26 new laws on banking, transportation, housing and social security, and on military matters, making himself the highest military commander.
This was protested by opposition leaders. Some of the contents of these laws had already been rejected in the referendum on the constitutional reform of December 2, 2007.
[See Heated debate over 26 new laws enacted by Chávez, El Universal, August 4, 2008]


The Consumer Price Index for the Metropolitan Area of Caracas (IPC-AMC) for August 2008, published by the BCV, reflects 34.5% of acummulated inflation in the last 12 months.


On August 11, 2008. Hugo Chávez, amidst obscene statements, announced he was giving American Ambassador in Venezuela Patrick Duddy 72 hours to leave the country, in part to show solidarity with the Bolivian government and people. He also ordered Venezuelan Foreign Affairs Minister Nicolás Maduro to recall Venezuelan Ambassador in Washington Bernardo Álvarez "before he is kicked out".
[See Venezuelan Government expelled US Ambassador, VenEconomy, August 12, 2008]
[Ver Venezuela Joins Bolivia in Expelling U.S. Ambassador (Washington Post, Juan Forero, Sep. 12, 2008)]


On September 18, 2008. Hugo Chávez expelled from Venezuela Human Rights Watch (HRW) officials hours after publishing their report "A Decade Under Chavez: Political Intolerance and Lost Opportunities for Advancing Human Rights".
[See Venezuela Expels Two Rights Activists (Washington Post, Juan Forero, Sep. 20, 2008)]


On October 23, 2008. In a resolution on democracy and human rights adopted at the end of this week's Strasbourg plenary session, the European Parliament condemns the use of intimidation and electoral manipulation in the run-up to elections in Venezuela. In the run-up to Venezuela's regional and local elections in November 2008, Parliament, in a resolution adopted by 51 votes to 1, "expresses concern about the list of electoral disqualifications" issued by the authorities, pointing to a "long series of measures taken by the government with a view to intimidating opposition members, dissidents and international observers in the country".
[See Human rights: political rights abuses in Venezuela]


On November 23, 2008. There were regional elections for 22 State Governors, 328 Municipal or District Mayors, 20 Councils in City Halls, 233 in Legislative Councils (603 positions in total).
On February 25, 2008. Clodosbaldo Russián, the general comptroller, filed before the directors of the CNE a list of 400 public officials inconstitucionally disabled by his office to opt for popularly elected office. Those included were not able to run in this 2008 regional elections. Among these are the opposition leaders Leopoldo López, Enrique Mendoza, Oscar Pérez, Enrique Ochoa Antich and Alfredo Peña.
[See Contralor llevó al CNE la lista de 400 inhabilitados para postularse in El Universal]
[See For Ousted Candidate, Fight Goes On (Washington Post, Juan Forero, October 11, 2008)]

From a total of some 9,022,686 votes (34.55% of abstention), 5,073,774 (56.23%) supported the government and 3,948,912 (43.77%) the opposition. The government won 80% of the Mayors, but the opposition elected 3 new State Governors (Zulia, Miranda and Carabobo), for a total of 5 (with Táchira and Nueva Esparta), and the Principal Mayor of Caracas.
The government got 178 positions (76%) in the Legislative Councils.
[See El análisis del resultado electoral, por Patricia Poleo in Noticias24.com]
[See Venezuela has new state governors, mayors in El Universal Daily News]
[See Allies of Venezuela's Chávez Win Big, but Opposition Secures Key Posts (Washington Post, Juan Forero, November 24, 2008)]

Primer boletín del CNE, Divulgación Elecciones Regionales - 23 de Noviembre de 2008
El chavismo gana en casi todo el país, pero pierde Caracas y Miranda in Noticias24.com
Análisis AFP: Gana mayoría de estados pero pierde los más poblados in Noticias24.com
Análisis AP: Oposición gana terreno en el mapa político venezolano in Noticias24.com


On December 11, 2008. The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) began collecting signatures to support a constitutional amendment eliminating the two-term limit for the presidential office. The first discussion of this ilegal amendment took place in the National Assembly on December 18 '08, the second and final discussion was on January 5 '09. It would be approved or not in February 15, 2009.
[See Congress formally proposes unlimited presidential reelection in El Universal, December 9 '08]
[See Editorial: Hugo Chávez Tries Again to Expand His Powers The Washington Post, December 19, 2008]
[See Resolución Convocatoria para el Referendo Aprobatorio de la Enmienda Constiticional (.pdf) Consejo Nacional Electoral, Enero 16 '09]

The project for constitutional reform defeated in the referendum of December 2, 2007, contained the change to "indefinite reelection".
According to Art. 345: A revised constitutional reform initiative may not be submitted during the same constitutional term of office of the National Assembly. (1999 Constitution, in effect)
The illegal referendum question does not contain the texts of the proposed reformed articles (160, 162, 174, 192 and 230), the government has not published the texts of the reforms; the amendment is a blank check.


On January 6, 2009. Hugo Chávez expelled Israel's ambassador in solidarity with Hamas.
[See Government expels Israel's ambassador in solidarity with Palestine in El Universal, January 6 '09]
[See Israel mulls over expulsion of Venezuelan ambassador in El Universal, January 7 '09]


On February 2, 2009. Hugo Chávez reached 10 years in power, 10 years dedicated to destroying Venezuela, transforming an emerging democracy into a failed fascist dictatorship.


On February 15, 2009. The government submitted to a referendum an ilegal constitutional amendment eliminating the two-term limit for the presidential office and other elected officials.
The opposition voted No. The officialists Yes.
The non-aligned and the abstention decided the vote. And the results?

At 9:35 PM, according to the CNE: Of a total of 12,068,967 votes, the Yes got 54.36% and the No 45.63% of the votes, with an abstention of 32.95%. [with 94.2% of the votes counted]
Few Venezuelans believed the fraudulent CNE, but the ilegal amendment was approved.
[See Ganó el Si con 54,36% in Unión Radio, Febrero 15 '09]
[See 54.36 percent of voters endorse Chávez's endless reelection in El Universal, February 16 '09]
[See Informe de Contraloría Electoral sobre el Referendo Aprobatorio de la Enmienda Constitucional Súmate, Febrero 15 '09, .pdf]
[See Chávez Wins Removal of Term Limits (Washington Post, Juan Forero, February 16, 2009)]


On March 19, 2009. The Prosecutor asked for the detention of Manuel Rosales, Mayor of Maracaibo and main opposition leader, for the alleged crime of embezzlement.
On Abril 1, 2009. The Ombudsman Gabriela Ramírez says that Manuel Rosales is a fugitive.
[See Ombudsman says that Manuel Rosales is a fugitive in El Universal, April 1 '09]
By the end of April Manuel Rosales went to Perú to avoid a fake trial.
[See Opposition Leader Seeks Asylum in Peru After Fleeing Venezuela (Washington Post, Juan Forero, April 22, 2009)]


On April 2, 2009. Retired General Raúl Isaías Baduel was violently detained for allegedly stealing from the army while he was their commander.
[See Intelligence agents detain ex Defense Minister in El Universal, April 14 '09]
[See Chávez Ally-Turned-Critic Is Detained by Venezuelan Military (Washington Post, Juan Forero, October 4, 2008)]


On April 3, 2009. Venezuela cries out for justice and weeps.
Easter this year started with bad omens for Venezuela. This Good Friday opened the gates not only to Easter week, but also, tragically, to the rogue injustice of the Hugo Chávez administration.
The list of its victims now includes those who have just been guillotined by the unjust sentence handed down by Judge Maryori Calderón: former Metropolitan Police captains Iván Simonovis, Henry Vivas, and Lázaro Forero and eight policemen.

[See Venezuela cries out for justice and weeps, VenEconomy, April 3, 2009]


On December 10, 2009. The 31st Control Court of Caracas, presided by Judge María Lourdes Afiuni, granted me a conditional release, after having spent the past two years and ten months in "pretrial" detention without a trial. I would note that Venezuelan criminal law places a two-year maximum on pretrial detention, except in exceptional circumstances which were not present in my case. Unfortunately, the Venezuelan government hopes to create the impression that Judge Afiuni's independent decision was somehow the product of corruption or a shady deal. Sadly, compliance with the law has become suspect in Venezuela, and those who dare to follow the law are subject to a moral and public "firing squad" from the Chávez regime. My first thoughts are for the brave judge, who was assigned to my case only recently, and whom I met for the first time when I appeared before her in her courtroom on December 10, but who today is paying for her judicial independence with jail time. Her treatment reveals to the world the true face of Venezuela's justice system, and underscores my feelings of solidarity with the dozens of political prisoners who today are in our prisons for thinking differently and expressing it publicly.
[See Venezuelan leader violates independence of judiciary - UN rights experts, United Nations News Centre, 16 December 2009]
[See Statement: Former Political Prisoner Cedeño Takes on Misinformation of Chávez, Robert Amsterdam, December 26, 2009]
[See Venezuela: Stop Attacks on Judicial Independence, Human Rights Watch, April 8, 2010]
[See Venezuelan judge is jailed after ruling angers President Hugo Chávez, Washington Post, Juan Forero, April 25, 2010]
[See Por la salud de la jueza Maria Lourdes Afiuni. Te pido unirte al llamado humanitario, Martha Colmenares, Enero 10, 2011]
[See I'm Hugo Chávez's prisoner, says jailed judge, the Guardian, Rory Carroll, January 14, 2011]
[See Noam Chomsky denounces old friend Hugo Chávez for 'assault' on democracy (Judge María Lourdes Afiuni has suffered enough), the Guardian, Rory Carroll, July 3, 2011]


On March 23, 2010. Venezuelan authorities have jailed a former state governor and presidential candidate who accused President Hugo Chávez's government of links to subversive groups in Latin America.
The detention of Oswaldo Álvarez Paz, a veteran of the opposition COPEI party but not one of Chávez's most prominent foes, will fuel criticism that the Venezuelan leader is taking his nation down an increasingly dictatorial route.
Picked up at home Monday night, Álvarez joins a list of several dozen Chávez opponents now in jail, living in exile or facing probes in the South American oil-exporting country.

A court ordered Álvarez's arrest for conspiracy, spreading false information and inciting hate, judicial officials said.
He governed oil-producing Zulia state in the early 1990s and unsuccessfully ran for the presidency with COPEI in 1993.
Authorities opened an inquiry into Álvarez earlier this month after he gave an interview to pro-opposition TV network Globovision accusing the government of ties to illegal groups.

"The Venezuelan regime has relations with structures that serve narco-trafficking, like [Colombian rebel group] FARC and others which exist in the continent and the world", he said.

The accusations against Álvarez could carry a jail sentence of between two and 16 years, local media said. "I assume the responsibility for the things that I have said and that I do", he told reporters before his arrest.

[See Arrest in Venezuela raises free speech concerns (Washington Post, Andrew Cawthorne, March 24 '10)]

Oswaldo Álvarez Paz was released on bail on May '10.
[He was found partially guilty on July 13, 2011. See below.]


.....


On July 12, 2010. A commando of 20 agents from the Servicio Bolivariano de Inteligencia Nacional (SEBIN), burst into the apartment of Venezuelan political leader Alejandro Peña Esclusa and took him prisoner.

The break-in resulted from the statements given by an alleged terrorist from El Salvador detained in Venezuela, Francisco Chávez Abarca, in which he implicated Peña Esclusa in an alleged plot against the State. Due process was violated; first, because Chávez Abarca did not declare in front of a tribunal, as corresponds according to law, but in the headquarters of SEBIN; and second, because the Salvadoran was immediately extradited to Cuba, without being judged in Venezuela, even though - according to the government - he was involved in a plot to destabilize the State. It is presumed he was extradited so his testimony could not be falsified in a trial or, so he could not be thoroughly investigated.

In a drawer in the desk of the youngest of Peña Esclusa's daughters, 8 years old, the agents "found" type C-4 explosives with the corresponding detonators. The agents seized the opportunity to steal cash, jewels, electronic equipment and other valuables.

The true reason why the ex-presidential candidate Peña Esclusa is in jail, is his long and persistent trajectory of denouncing mister Hugo Chávez. Peña Esclusa not only has denounced verbally and in writing the civil and human rights violations committed by the Venezuelan government; but has penaly charged mister Chávez before the Public Ministry (for Treason, due to his ties with FARC), he has charged him before the Interamerican Comission on Human Rights (Washington) for improperly intervening and promoting violence in other Latin American countries; and was about to file charges for crimes against humanity before the International Penal Court (CPI), based in Le Hague - based on the information contained in the computers of FARC's second-in-command, aka. Raúl Reyes, killed on March 1, 2008 - due to the complicity of mister Chávez with the Colombian narco-terrorists.

Peña Esclusa has been persecuted systematically by Chávez's government. Was illegally detained in 2002 - also in the headquarters of SEBIN - by direct order from mister Chávez. The States' media and functionaries have advanced a campaign of slanders against him. Chávez himself has attacked him publically in all national radio and television stations. He has been forbidden to leave the country for two years. Has been subjected to police tracking, threats against his physical integrity and constant harassment. The case on the governmental persecution against Peña Esclusa was presented by his lawyer before the International Penal Court (Le Hague).

Alejandro Peña Esclusa, 56 years of age, has no criminal record, nor weaponry knowledge. Has been an outstanding sportsman, getting international titles for his country. Has a stable, well founded, family. Is a mechanical engineer, with advanced studies in financial administration, and defense and security. Was an assessor to the National Council on Security and Defense of Venezuela (CONASEDE). Is a writer and columnist; author of six books, some of which have been translated to other languages. Was a candidate for the Presidency of Venezuela. Is a correspondent in Venezuela and Colombia for Argentine daily La Nueva Provincia. Member of the Philosophical Academy of Brazil. President of the civil asociation Fuerza Solidaria. President of the Union of Democratic Organizations of America (UnoAmérica). Has been decorated in Honduras with the Order José Cecilio del Valle. Received a special recognition from the Alabama Congress, for his extensive efforts defending democracy and freedoms in Latin America. Has been invited as speaker in almost all the capitals in America.

[From El caso Peña Esclusa en breve, Fuerza Solidaria]


On July 20, 2011. Peña Esclusa is released from jail

A release warrant on behalf of Engineer Alejandro Peña Esclusa is already in the hands of his defense attorneys, his wife Indira de Peña told daily newspaper El Universal.

"Right now, I am having a meeting with defense attorney Alfredo Weil for him to explain me the extent of Peña Esclusa's release warrant", his wife said.

[From Peña Esclusa is released from jail, El Universal, July 20, 2011]

[See Venezuela: HRF celebra el cese de la detención arbitraria de Alejandro Peña Esclusa, Human Rights Foundation, 20 de Julio de 2011]

[See Peña Esclusa en libertad: "Vale la pena sacrificarse por Venezuela", Fuerza Solidaria, 21 Julio 2011]

[See "La reconciliación del país comienza con la liberación de los presos políticos", Fuerza Solidaria, 30 Julio 2011]

[See Prohiben a Peña Esclusa hablar a medios de comunicación, Fuerza Solidaria, 2 Agosto 2011]


On September 26, 2010. "Mesa de la Unidad Democrática" got 48% of the popular vote in the parliamentary elections, but just 39% of the deputies. "PSUV" with 49% of the popular vote got 59% of the deputies. "PPT" with 3% of the votes got just 1% of the deputies.
According to the Consejo Nacional Electoral, out of 165 deputies PSUV got 98 with 5,399,574 votes, MUD got 65 with 5,312,293 votes, PPT got 2 with 330,260 votes.
Participation was 11,042,127 votes total, 66.45% of the electoral registry.
With these results the opposition breaks the qualified majority of the officialist party in the Asamblea Nacional.
[Aggregate electoral data from El Universal, Septiembre 27, 2010]
[See Divulgación Elecciones Parlamentarias - 26 de Septiembre de 2010, Consejo Nacional Electoral]

Article 186 (Violated by the Consejo Nacional Electoral):
The National Assembly will be integrated by deputies elected in each federal entity by universal voting, direct, personal and secret with proportional representation, according to a population base of one point one percent of the total population of the country.
[See Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, Diciembre 30, 1999]

[See PSUV 95, MUD 62, PPT 2, por definir 6, Noticiero Digital, Septiembre 27, 2010]
[See Un sistema electoral diseñado a medida salva al líder bolivariano, Diario El País, España, Septiembre 28, 2010]
[See Chavez fails to reach critical two-thirds majority in Venezuelan assembly, Juan Forero, Washington Post, September 28, 2010]
[See PPT afirma que el "gran perdedor" es el Presidente, Pedro Pablo Peñaloza, El Universal, Septiembre 28, 2010]


On December 20, 2010. The National Assembly has just ratified a new blow to freedom of expression and information in Venezuela by approving two bills amending the Organic Law on Telecommunications (Lotel) and the Social Responsibility in Radio, TV and Electronic Media Law (Resortemec) at the government's bidding on 20 December.
See Freedom of expression threatened by legislative reforms being rushed through parliament (Reporters Without Borders, 22 December 2010)


On May 10, 2011. The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) published the Strategic Dossier "The FARC Files: Venezuela, Ecuador and the Secret Archive of 'Raúl Reyes'".
This Strategic Dossier provides unique insights into the thinking and evolution of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). It is based on a study of the computer disks belonging to Luis Edgar Devía Silva (aka Raúl Reyes), head of FARC's International Committee (COMINTER), that were seized by Colombian armed forces in a raid in March 2008 on Devía's camp inside Ecuador. Several months afterwards, senior officials from the Colombian Ministry of Defence invited the IISS to conduct an independent analysis of the material.
The dossier shows how FARC evolved from a small, autarkic and strategically irrelevant group into an insurgent movement which, fuelled by revenues from narcotics production, came close to jeopardising the survival of the Colombian state. A key part of FARC's evolution was the development of an international strategy aimed at acquiring financial support, arms and political legitimacy. The dossier looks in detail at FARC's relations with Venezuela and Ecuador.
The dossier illuminates in detail FARC's efforts to develop relationships with the governments and other strategic actors in the neighbouring states of Venezuela and Ecuador. These followed different trajectories and achieved different degrees of success. The relationship with Venezuela ultimately acquired a strategic dimension characterised by various forms of state support, whereas that with Ecuador did not.

[See The FARC Files: Venezuela, Ecuador and the Secret Archive of 'Raúl Reyes' - Summary, The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), May 10, 2011] (Available in English, Spanish and Portuguese)]


From June 10 2011. Chavez's disappearance from public view since a surgical operation in Cuba has convulsed the volatile and politically polarized South American OPEC member of 29 million people.
He came back to Venezuela on July 4 but continues to receive cancer treatment in Cuba.

[See Rumors over Chavez absence reach frenzy in Venezuela (Andrew Cawthorne, REUTERS, June 28 '11)
[See And now we have a video of Hugo Chavez, which only raises more questions (The Devil's Excrement, June 28 '11)]
[See Another video, more questions, but Hugo Chavez is certainly recovering from something serious (The Devil's Excrement, June 29 '11)]
[See President Chávez had a cancerous tumor removed (El Universal, June 30 '11)]
[See Hugo Chávez admits cancerous tumor (The Miami Herald, July 1 '11)]


On July 13, 2011. The former Governor of Zulia State, Oswaldo Álvarez Paz, was sentenced to two years in prison for the crime of spreading false information. The twenty-first Trial Court of the Metropolitan Area of Caracas, in charge of Judge Alberto Rossi, found that Álvarez Paz incurred in this crime on March 8, 2010, when during a television show, he said that "Venezuela had become a center of operations that facilitates drug trafficking".

Despite the sentence, the former Governor of Zulia will not remain behind bars, because the Court agreed to his staying on bail with prohibition from leaving the country.

Out of the trial, Álvarez Paz said that his trial is "a political case".

[See Hallan culpable a Álvarez Paz de difundir información falsa (El Universal, Alejandra M. Hernández F., 14 de Julio de 2011)]

[See Venezuela: HRF Condemns Two-Year Sentence against Oswaldo Álvarez Paz (Human Rights Foundation, July 15, 2011)]


On September 1, 2011. The Interamerican Court of Human Rights ruled in favor of Leopoldo López.
The ruling determined that the disqualification of opposition politician López Mendoza violated his political rights under Article 23 of the American Convention on Human Rights. The IACourtHR also asked Venezuela to lift Lopez Mendoza's disqualification.

[See Corte IDH. Caso López Mendoza Vs. Venezuela. Fondo Reparaciones y Costas. Sentencia de 1 de septiembre de 2011 Serie C No. 233 (Juez García Sayán, Juez Vio Grossi)]

"The ruling of the IACHR Court runs counter to the human rights of all Venezuelans, the laws of the Republic, justice and national sovereignty; it promotes impunity and impedes and undermines the fight against corruption", reads the statement issued by the Comptroller General, Carlos Escarrá, Office.

[See Comptroller: IACHR ruling in favor of Leopoldo López is unfair El Universal, Friday September 16, 2011]

[See HRF Welcomes IACourtHR Ruling on Case of López Mendoza, Asks Venezuela to Comply Human Rights Foundation, September 19, 2011]


On November 21, 2011. Diego Arria files complaint against President Chávez at The Hague.

Opposition presidential pre-candidate Diego Arria said that the lawsuit seeks to protect Venezuelans from crimes which are "predictable" due to Venezuela's situation. He expects a prompt ruling.

"It is a complaint to defend the rights of thousands and thousands of victims of Hugo Chávez. This complaint is neither against the Venezuelan president's office as an institution nor against Chávez as Head of State. It is intended to determine the criminal and personal liability of Hugo Chávez and some of his top aides for crimes against humanity", he said.

Arria stressed that the complaint requires a prompt ruling, in order to prevent new crimes that are foreseeable in the light of Venezuelan circumstances. "I intend to prevent situations similar to those occurred in countries such as Ivory Coast when his President (Laurent Gbagbo) refused to step down."

[See Diego Arria files complaint against President Chávez at The Hague El Universal, Monday November 21, 2011]


On January 9, 2012. Chávez orders closure of Venezuelan consulate in Miami.

"During the presentation of his Report and Accounts, President Hugo Chávez ordered the closure of the consulate in Miami while his government assesses the facts in which Consul General Livia Acosta was allegedly involved."

"Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez on Friday announced the closure of Venezuela's Consulate in Miami, after the US government expelled Venezuelan Consul General Livia Acosta last week."

"'Foreign Minister (Nicolás Maduro) advised me to close the consulate. We have shut it down. There is no consulate in Miami', said the head of State during the presentation of his Report and Accounts at the National Assembly."

[See Chávez orders closure of Venezuelan consulate in Miami El Universal, Friday January 13, 2012]

[See US: Closure of Miami consulate is Venezuela's sovereign decision El Universal, Friday January 13, 2012]


On February 12, 2012. With about 1.8 (62%) of the 2.9 million votes, Henrique Capriles Radonski won the Mesa de la Unidad Democrática (MUD) primary elections to oppose Chávez in the presidential elections of October 7 2012.

[See Henrique Capriles wins opposition primaries in Venezuela El Universal, Monday February 13, 2012]


On February 23, 2012. Venezuela's President said during a cabinet meeting broadcast by all Venezuelan and TV stations that he is expected to undergo surgery on Monday or Tuesday after doctors found a new lesion on the same spot where he had cancer surgery last June.

[See Chávez leaves for Cuba on Friday afternoon El Universal, Thursday February 23, 2012]


On March 16, 2012. Chávez arrives in Venezuela. The Venezuelan president stayed for 21 days in Havana, where he underwent surgery on 26 February to remove a new tumor at the same site where on June last year he was removed a cancerous tumor from the pelvic area.

[See President Chávez arrives in Venezuela El Universal, Friday March 16, 2012]


On March 24, 2012. Hugo Chávez announced on Saturday in a mandatory nationwide radio and television broadcast that on Saturday night he is departing again for Cuba, to continue his cancer treatment.

[See Chávez to depart for Cuba to start radiotherapy El Universal, Saturday March 24, 2012]


On March 29, 2012. Chávez comes back and promises a second socialist plan for the country.

[See Chávez regresa y promete segundo plan socialista al país El Universal, Jueves 29 de Marzo, 2012]


On April 8, 2012. Chávez is in Cuba for third course of radiotherapy, was received by Raúl Castro.

[See Chávez está en Cuba para tercer ciclo de radioterapia El Universal, Lunes 9 de Abril, 2012]


On April 12, 2012. Hugo Chavez commemorated the tenth anniversary of the events of April 2002 with a "gathering of friends" in all national radio and television networks.
After arriving at 10:25 pm this Wednesday night at the Simón Bolívar International Airport in Maiquetía, from Havana, Cuba, where he underwent a third cycle of radiotherapy, the mandatary immediately headed for Miraflores Palace to kick off what he called "a conversational meeting".

[See Chávez encadena a medios para hacer tertulia sobre 11A El Universal, Jueves 12 de Abril, 2012]


On April 14, 2012. Chávez not to attend Summit on health reasons.
Foreign minister Nicolás Maduro announced that Hugo Chávez will not attend the Summit of the Americas in Colombia because he must prepare to start the fourth cycle of radiation therapy to fight cancer.

[See Chávez not to attend Summit on health reasons El Universal, Saturday April 14, 2012]


On April 18, 2012. Justice Eladio Aponte Aponte said that senior officers of the Bolivarian Armed Forces and top officials of Hugo Chávez's government are involved in drug trafficking operations.
Eladio Aponte Aponte is currently in Miami, under the protection of the DEA.

[See Former justice links Venezuelan officials to drug trafficking El Universal, Wednesday April 18, 2012]


On April 20, 2012. Venezuelan general Wilmer Moreno was killed.
Moreno was a close collaborator of the current Venezuelan government. He participated in the attempted coup of 1992, in which Chávez sought to overthrow and kill then President Carlos Andrés Pérez.

[See Venezuelan general Wilmer Moreno killed El Universal, Friday April 20, 2012]


On May 12, 2012. Back in Venezuela, Chávez says he completed radiation therapy.
Hugo Chávez said he "successfully" completed the cycle of radiation therapy, as scheduled by his medical team. He arrived late on Friday at Simón Bolívar International Airport in Maiquetía, after spending 11 days in Havana, Cuba, where he underwent the last two (fifth and sixth) cycles of radiation therapy sessions to treat the cancer that he suffers.

[See Back in Venezuela, Chávez says he completed radiation therapy El Universal, Saturday May 12, 2012]


On July 4, 2012. World leftwing closes ranks with Venezuelan leader.
Sao Paulo Forum joins efforts to prevent the rightwing advance.
Beginning on Wednesday, 120 leftwing parties from all over the world and 400 international delegates will gather for the 18th session of Sao Paulo Forum, for the first time in Caracas.
According to the master document that will guide the talks, they will take sides with Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez for his reelection.
"The US meddling and influence can be felt in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela through several attempts at influencing the Venezuelan election, promoting undemocratic clues ahead of the election of October 2012. For the Venezuelan and hemispheric leftwing, the reelection of Commander Hugo Chávez is of the essence," they admonished.
[In that regard, they add that "solidarity with the candidacy of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela" will be agreed.]

[See World leftwing closes ranks with Venezuelan leader El Universal, Wednesday July 04, 2012]


On July 14, 2012. Confession letter forwarded by Venezuelan ex-Magistrate Aponte Aponte.

"The acusation was thrown by the former magistrate of the Room of Criminal Cassation of the Supreme Court of Justice, Eladio Aponte Aponte, who asserted that the president ordered him to achieve the Commissioners Ivan Simonovis, Henry Vivas, Lazaro Forero and eight agents of the defunct Metropolitan Police (PM) processed by the events of April 11, 2002 were sentenced, as indeed happened."


"Mssrs. Ex-Commissioners Henry Vivas Lázaro Forero, Iván Simonovis, Erasmo Bolívar, Luis Molina, Arube Pérez, Marco Hurtado, Héctor Lovaina",

"The undersigned, Dr. Ramón Eladio Aponte Aponte, former magistrate of the Criminal Court, Supreme Tribunal of Justice, holder of Venezuelan Identity Card number three five one one zero four, attest:"

"It is my peremptory duty to avow you, and everyone, that I have committed the sin of having issued to the judges who prosecuted you the order to sentence you to 30-year imprisonment at whatever cost. I was just following direct orders from President Hugo Chávez Frías, who instructed me to do it".
[San José, Costa Rica, this sixteenth day of April, year two thousand and twelve]

[See Confession letter forwarded by Venezuelan ex-Magistrate Aponte Aponte El Universal, Friday July 14, 2012]

[See Aponte Aponte: Chávez ordenó condenar a comisarios del 11A El Universal, Viernes 14 de Julio, 2012]


Presidential Election 2012:


On October 07, 2012. Polling places start operations across Venezuela.

From 6 am on Sunday polling centers started operations in Venezuela, but voters were waiting in line at the doors of the voting places from early morning hours.
The electoral register comprises 18.8 million registered voters, including 100,495 Venezuelans living abroad, who are eligible to go to the polls on Sunday to choose the next president of the republic for the 2012-2019 period.
Polling stations are to close at 6 pm, but the voting process could be extended at polling centers where there are still voters in line.
The tally process will be fully automatic. The first report on results will be issued when an irreversible electoral trend exists. Venezuelan laws prohibit the dissemination of exit polls before the first official report.
There are 39,322 polling stations in 13,810 polling places. For the first time, the voting machines will be activated by a fingerprint-reading device to prevent any voter from casting his ballot more than once.
Some 139,000 troops will be in charge of security and logistics in the electoral process.

[See Polling places start operations across Venezuela El Universal, Sunday October 07, 2012, 07:05 AM]


On October 07, 2012. President Chávez: Hope the process to end peacefully.

The Venezuelan leader, elected in 1999, is seeking reelection to remain in office for a total of 20 years.

[See President Chávez: Hope the process to end peacefully El Universal, Sunday October 07, 2012, 01:40 PM]


On October 07, 2012. Chávez calls upon all political actors to remain calm.

"Prepare to accept the results, whatever they are."

[See Chávez calls upon all political actors to remain calm El Universal, Sunday October 07, 2012, 08:38 PM]


On October 07, 2012. Chávez reelected as president until 2019.

The results were disclosed after 90% of the ballots were counted.

President Hugo Chávez was reelected with 7,444,082 votes (54.42%), while opposition hopeful Henrique Capriles won 6,151,544 votes (44.97%), announced National Electoral Council (CNE) president Tibisay Lucena late on Sunday.
Lucena stressed that turnout in the presidential election hit 80.94%.

[See Chávez reelected as president until 2019 El Universal, Sunday October 07, 2012, 10:27 PM]


On October 07, 2012. Capriles: I hope Chávez interprets people's expression with greatness.

"We have started to pave the way and more than six million people are looking for future. You can count on me. I am at your service and I want to tell the other Venezuelans (government supporters) that they can count on me as well", said opposition leader Henrique Capriles after electoral authorities announced Hugo Chávez's reelection as president.

[See Capriles: I hope Chávez interprets people's expression with greatness El Universal, Sunday October 07, 2012, 11:33 PM]


On October 08, 2012. Capriles cheers voters up.

Expresidential candidate Enrique Capriles Radonski undertook to continue working for a country full of harmony and with plenty of opportunities for everybody.

"There are more than six million, almost half the country helped me pave the way. I will continue working and you are not alone; there are millions of us."

[See Capriles cheers voters up El Universal, Monday October 08, 2012, 11:04 AM]


On October 9, 2012. Reelected President Chávez obtains over eight million votes.

Venezuelan reelected President Hugo Chávez surpassed the eight million vote threshold. Upon review and counting of ballots in 38,066 polling stations (96.7%), the reelected president gained 8,044,106 valid votes totaling 55.11% of the electorate.
For his part, challenger Henrique Capriles Radonski obtained 6,461,612 (44.27%).
The final figures are yet to come. Counting is still pending in another 952 polling stations in Venezuela and 127 abroad.

[See Chávez supera los 8 millones de votos El Universal, Martes 9 de octubre de 2012, 12:00 AM]


If these 38,066 poling stations received 14.505.718 valid votes, at a rate of 381 votes each, in average, they had to receive them a rate of almost 31.8 votes per hour; that is, some 2 minutes per vote during 12 hours, sustained at each station!
And this does not consider the null votes, each taking some time also.


On October 10, 2012. Capriles: "The winner was the Government, Venezuela never won".

Referring to Chávez's reelection as president and both the unequal grounds of the election campaign and the voters that the Government was able to bribe, Capriles commented that "the winner was the Government. Venezuela never won."

[See Capriles: "The winner was the Government, Venezuela never won" El Universal, Wednesday October 10, 2012, 11:28 AM]


Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE) - Divulgación Elección Presidencial 2012, Octubre 17, 09:53:33 PM:

Hugo Chávez: 8,147,697 votes, 55.15%
Henrique Capriles Radonski: 6,536,438 votes, 44.24%
Others: 89,552 votes, 0.58%

Número de Electores escrutados: 18,679,336 (Registered voters)
Número Total de Votantes que votaron realmente: 15,062,393 (Actual votes)
Participación: 80.63% (Turnout)
Número de Votos Escrutados: 15,059,298 (Votes counted)
Número total de Votos Válidos: 98.1% 14,773,687 (Valid Votes)
Número total de Votos Nulos: 1.89% 285,611 (Null Votes)
Número de Actas Procesadas: 38,798 (Polling Stations Processed)

For updated official results, see Divulgación Elección Presidencial 2012 (Consejo Nacional Electoral - CNE)

15,059,298 / 38,798 = 388.1463 = 388 votes per polling station (in average)
388.146 votes per station / 12 = 32.3455 votes per station per hour = 0.539 votes per minute
0.539 votes per minute = 1.855 minutes per vote = 1 min. 51 seg. per vote [sustained]!
Even when supposing a working time of 13 hours for all voting stations, the calculation gives 2 minutes per vote!
[from when you get access to the voting machine to when the next voter gets access]

But Miguel Octavio (moctavio) on October 11, 2012 at 6:31 pm (at The Devil's Excrement - Postmorten Of The Venezuelan Election) said: "In my table, we were voting faster than one person per minute, probably two per minute."

The video "Última votação na Venezuela" at O Globo (Brazil) shows how to get a 50 seconds vote.


Also see A la Sociedad Democrática Venezolana ante los controvertidos resultados del 7 de Octubre (Por la Conciencia, Octubre 13, 2012)


In Chávez' Venezuela, to get access to the voting machine you must first have your fingerprint scanned, as it appears in your I.D. that you must show. [The fear factor]
But there were other factors that explain both the very high speed of the vote and the low abstention: the multiple votes of the activists with multiple I.D. in the centres without representation of the opposition until the closing of the polling station, and activists voting for those who did not show up during the day.


"I have a conviction, and it is that the Sunday results do not reflect the true will of the people of Venezuela." "If the elections had been free and clean, another would be the result," said opposition Deputy Maria Corina Machado.
"On October 7, what was imposed here, what won here, were the abuse and the outrage of the Government", she said.

See ¿Hubo fraude electoral? Cuestionan limpieza de elecciones en Venezuela (Antonio María Delgado, Miami Herald, Octubre 13, 2012)


Ramón Guillermo Aveledo, one of the main architects of the unit of the Venezuelan opposition, said that bullying played a role in the re-election of President Hugo Chávez, pointing out that the result of the elections this month may have been most linked with the fear that with a legitimate affection of the population towards the Bolivarian Revolution.

See El miedo explica la victoria de Chávez en Venezuela, dice líder opositor Aveledo (Antonio María Delgado, Miami Herald, Octubre 18, 2012)


"It can be concluded that: the inconsistencies found in many voting centers and the magnitude of them, imply that the official results of the elections on 7-Oct-2012 do not reflect the will of the people with statistical security."

See Evaluación de los resultados electorales presentados por el CNE (.pdf, María Mercedes Febres Cordero, Bernardo Márquez, EsData, Noviembre, 2012)


For updated official results, see EsData - Elecciones Presidenciales 2012


Since December 11, 2012, Chávez has been in Cuba under intensive medical care after major cancer surgery.


Regional Elections 2012:

On December 16, 2012. the oficialism won in 20 states and the opposition could only keep 3 (Miranda, Lara and Amazonas), and they lost 4 states (Mérida, Zulia, Nueva Esparta and Monagas). The abstention was around 47%.

See Balance de la jornada electoral del 16 de diciembre (El Universal, 17 de Diciembre 18, 2012)


Comunicado de las organizaciones Venezolanos Perseguidos Politicos en el Exilio (Veppex) y Venezuela Awarennes Foundation (VAF) (Veppex, January 8, 2013)


On January 9, 2013. In contravention of the Constitution, the Supreme Justice Tribunal decided that Chávez does not need to take oath again "because there is continuity".

See Top court decides that President Chávez does not need to take oath again (El Universal, January 9, 2013)


On January 13, 2013. "The president is conscious. He is in communication with his family and his political team and medical staff."

See Chávez requires specific actions for respiratory failure (El Universal, January 13, 2013)


We absolutely do not recognize the de-facto regime that has been established in Venezuela!

See Venezolanos exiliados redactan 'Manifiesto de Miami' (DiarioEnLaMira.Com, 13 de Enero, 2013)
[English translation]


On January 17, 2013. "Maduro: Gov't ponders scenarios, but Chávez remains the President."
"Venezuelan Executive Vice-President Nicolás Maduro said the government is assessing and reassessing scenarios, but stressed that President Hugo Chávez is and will continue to be the president of Venezuela."

See Maduro: Gov't ponders scenarios, but Chávez remains the President (El Universal, January 17, 2013)


On February 8, 2013. "Venezuela devalues currency by 46.5%; VEB at 6.30 per US dollar."
"An adjustment in the official exchange rate, from VEB 4.30 per US dollar to VEB 6.30 per US dollar, which implies 46.5% devaluation."

See Venezuela devalues currency by 46.5%; VEB at 6.30 per US dollar (El Universal, February 8, 2013)


On February 18, 2013. "Fidel Castro welcomes President Hugo Chávez's return to Venezuela."

See Fidel Castro welcomes President Hugo Chávez's return to Venezuela (El Universal, February 18, 2013)


On February 27, 2013. the former ambassador of Panama to the OAS said Wednesday to the international channel NTN24 news that President Hugo Chávez would have been switched off four days ago from the machines that kept him alive.

"The President would have been disconnected from the machines that kept him alive four days ago"
"The information that I have is that Chávez from December 30 was brain-dead, in that state they moved him to Venezuela because they didn't want to disconnect him in Cuba", said the former ambassador.

Guillermo Cochez challenged chavism to belie his statements.
"I challenge the Government of Venezuela to tell me that what I say is false, showing Chávez".
According to Guillermo Cochez between Wednesday and Thursday in Venezuela, new elections would be called.
"As a result of all this, today or tomorrow they would call new elections, that reflects what has been said about the health of President Chávez is totally false."
"He has been hidden, because no one has seen him, they have been misreporting the information with false photographs, which do not reflect reality". "They have been cheating Venezuela and the whole world", he reiterated.

Guillermo Cochez was dismissed on January 17 from his post as ambassador of Panama to the Organization of American States OAS after controversial statements about the situation experienced by Venezuela.

See 'El presidente Chávez tiene muerte cerebral desde el 30 de diciembre' (NTN24.com, Febrero 27, 2013)


On February 28, 2013. President Chávez has been off the air for 80 days.

"Many thought that the return of Venezuela's President Hugo Chávez to his country of origin would mean his public reappearance. Neverthless, 10 days after, the most famous patient in Caracas' Military Hospital remains as invisible as in Cuba, with the visits restricted to a small number of close relatives and ministers."

See President Chávez has been off the air for 80 days (El Universal, February 28, 2013)


On March 5, 2013. Spanish daily: Venezuela's Chávez off to La Orchila upon recurrence.

"The Venezuelan president may have been transferred from the Military Hospital after the poor findings in the latest CAT, Spanish daily newspaper reported on Friday."

See Spanish daily: Venezuela's Chávez off to La Orchila upon recurrence (El Universal, March 1, 2013)


On March 5, 2013. Venezuela's president Hugo Chávez passes away.

"Hugo Chávez Frías, the president of Venezuela, died after waging a long battle against cancer, treated in Havana since the middle of 2011."

See Venezuela's President Hugo Chávez passes away (El Universal, March 5, 2013)


On March 5, 2013. Carter hails Chávez's commitment to improving the lives of Venezuelans.

"Former US president Jimmy Carters praised Chávez's efforts to "create new forms of integration" in Latin America and the Caribbean, noting that during his 14-year tenure Venezuelan poverty rates were cut in half and a more effective participation in political and economic life was facilitated to millions."

See Carter hails Chávez's commitment to improving the lives of Venezuelans (El Universal, March 6, 2013)

See Jimmy Carter Statement on Death of Hugo Chavez (The Carter Center, March 5, 2013)


Presidential Elections 2013:


On March 9, 2013. CNE convenes election for Venezuelan president next April 14.

See CNE convenes election for Venezuelan president next April 14 (El Universal, March 9, 2013)


On March 11, 2013. Venezuela's dissent enrolls Henrique Capriles as presidential candidate.

"The dissenting coalition unanimously agreed to use a single ballot in the upcoming poll."

See Venezuela's dissent enrolls Capriles as presidential candidate (El Universal, March 11, 2013)


On March 11, 2013. Cuba is said to have sent 2,000 agents to lever Maduro.

"According to Spanish daily newspaper ABC, the Cuban agents would be responsible for election monitoring, along with some 46,000 Cuban cooperators who officially reside in Venezuela, with the ultimate purpose of nailing down the Chavista revolution."

See Cuba is said to have sent 2,000 agents to lever Maduro (El Universal, March 13, 2013)


On April 13, 2013. According to Datamática, market research and public opinion company, Henrique Capriles arrives at the election date with a 12.7% advantage over Nicolás Maduro in voting intention.
(42.2% vs. 29.5%, with 27.4% undecided) [Tracking poll #19]


On April 14, 2013. Maduro is the new Venezuelan president with 50,66% of votes.

"Nicolás Maduro was elected as the new Venezuelan president with 7,505,338 votes (50.66% of the ballots cast) versus 7,270,403 votes of opposition candidate Henrique Capriles, who gained 49.07% of ballots, said president of the National Electoral Council (CNE) Tibisay Lucena."

"Lucena disclosed the election results after 99.12 percent of the ballots were counted. Turnout was estimated at 78.71 percent."

See Maduro is the new Venezuelan president with 50,66% of votes (El Universal, April 14, 2013)


On April 15, 2013. Capriles rejects results as long as all votes are not counted.

"Opposition coalition presidential candidate Henrique Capriles on Monday firmly stated that he makes no pact with "a person I deem illegitimate" and called on the National Electoral Council (CNE) to audit all the ballot boxes "so that every vote is counted again.""

See Capriles rejects results as long as all votes are not counted (El Universal, April 15, 2013)


How could an advantage of 12.7% transform into a questionable defeat?


On April 16, 2013. International viewers unable to attest to clean vote in Venezuela.

"International guests said that in the absence of a vote recount, Nicolás Maduro's legitimacy is at stake."

See International viewers unable to attest to clean vote in Venezuela (El Universal, April 16, 2013)


On April 17, 2013. Washington puts recognition of Maduro as elected president on hold.

"The diplomat warned that there would be "serious questions" if irregularities in the election are found."

See Washington puts recognition of Maduro as elected president on hold (El Universal, April 17, 2013)


On April 17, 2013. Spain recognizes Maduro as president-elect of Venezuela.

"The Spanish Government said it hoped that "within the framework of the Constitution, all political players act responsibly and show respect for institutions"."

See Spain recognizes Maduro as president-elect of Venezuela (El Universal, April 17, 2013)


On April 18, 2013. Venezuela to audit 46% of the ballot boxes that were not audited.

""We will select a sample (of the ballot boxes)," said Tibisay Lucena".

See Venezuela to audit 46% of the ballot boxes that were not audited (El Universal, April 18, 2013)


On April 19, 2013. Nicolás Maduro sworn in as Venezuelan president.

"At 2:05 pm Nicolás Maduro was sworn in by Speaker of National Assembly (AN) Diosdado Cabello as the President of Venezuela."
"The daughter of late President Hugo Chávez, María Gabriela Chávez, along with Speaker of National Assembly (AN) Diosdado Cabello, put the presidential sash on Maduro."

See Nicolás Maduro sworn in as Venezuelan president (El Universal, April 19, 2013)


On April 20, 2013. Electoral body: The presidential vote is over; the results are irreversible.

""Audits do not lead to results; it is important to keep this in mind", said Sandra Oblitas, director of the Nacional Electoral Council (CNE)."
"Oblitas warned that the CNE decision announced on Thursday to conduct an additional audit of 46% of the ballot boxes that were not audited on April 14 "is not a recount. The audit will be conducted under the technical standards provided by the CNE."."

See Electoral body: The presidential vote is over; the results are irreversible (El Universal, April 20, 2013)


Art 156, Organic Law of Electoral Processes (2009): The audit is the verification of all the materials, technological resources and data used in the execution of the various phases of the electoral process, so that they guarantee the transparency and reliability of the process. Audits may be applied to all or some of the phases of the electoral process.


On April 21, 2013. The reasonable doubts about April 14 presidential election.

"More than four million votes did not match when recounting ballot by ballot. The Election Day that took place last Sunday April 14 will be remembered because of excesses with assisted vote and several election audits in the absence of witnesses."

See The reasonable doubts about April 14 presidential election (El Universal, Joseph Poliszuk, April 21, 2013)


On April 22, 2013. Henrique Capriles does not rule out election re-run.

"Presidential candidate for opposition Unified Democratic Panel (MUD) Henrique Capriles told Spanish newspaper El Mundo in an interview that he is convinced that the outcome of an election audit in Venezuela would lead to a new election, at least partially."

See Henrique Capriles does not rule out election re-run (El Universal, April 22, 2013)


On April 23, 2013. Minister Varela threatens to put Henrique Capriles behind bars.

"Minister of Penitentiary Affairs Iris Varela said the Venezuelan government is to report to domestic and foreign bodies what she described as "fascist actions" by the opposition. She said videos and testimonies would be presented as evidence. Further, she threatened to put opposition leader Henrique Capriles in jail."

See Minister Varela threatens to put Henrique Capriles behind bars (El Universal, April 23, 2013)


On April 25, 2013. Capriles to contest the results of the presidential election of April 14.

"The former presidential candidate for the opposition coalition MUD conditioned his participation in the audit of 46% of the ballot boxes on the delivery of the voter's rolls by the National Electoral Council. "If we are denied access to the voter's rolls, we will not participate in a tinpot audit (...) because it is a mockery of Venezuelans"."

See Capriles to contest the results of the presidential election of April 14 (El Universal, April 25, 2013)


On April 29, 2013. Henrique Capriles to contest election results by May 6.

""I have no doubt that this matter will be brought to international bodies. Any time soon, our country will hold another election. Be confident and have faith (...) lies are fragile," Henrique Capriles remarked."

See Henrique Capriles to contest election results by May 6 (El Universal, April 29, 2013)


On May 2, 2013. Venezuelan opposition contests election of April 14 at the high court.

"Gerardo Fernández said that the complaint is contained in a paper of more than 180 sheets."

See Venezuelan opposition contests election of April 14 at the high court (El Universal, May 2, 2013)


On May 5, 2013. Cubans in Venezuela.

"General Antonio Rivero, recently detained, has reported on the alleged meddling of Cuban military officers in security and defense in Venezuela."

See Cubans in Venezuela (El Universal, May 11, 2013)


On May 9, 2013. Mathematicians claim that election numbers in Venezuela do not match.

"Differences noted between voters and votes in Venezuela's election."

"The results released by the board of the Venezuelan National Electoral Council (CNE) in several bulletins about the presidential election of April 14 exhibit "logic and numerical inconsistencies"."

See Mathematicians claim that election numbers in Venezuela do not match (El Universal, May 9, 2013)


On May 10, 2013. IACHR urges Venezuelan gov't to ensure human rights.

"The Inter American Commission on Human Rights asked the Venezuelan State to commence an investigation into all the reports of death and violence."

See IACHR urges Venezuelan gov't to ensure human rights (El Universal, May 10, 2013)


On May 13, 2013. Mercosur commission plans to review democratic status in Venezuela.

"The Human Rights Commission, Common Market of the South (Mercosur), admitted on Monday an application to review democratic conditions in Venezuela, substantiated with the violent events occurred after the presidential election of April 14 and the detention of Retired General Antonio Rivero."

See Mercosur commission plans to review democratic status in Venezuela (El Universal, May 13, 2013)


On June 6, 2013. Opposition introduces register of voters including 180,125 dead.

"Experts from the opposition Unified Democratic Panel (MUD) plan to submit this week to the National Electoral Council (CNE) data of 180,125 dead people that remain enabled to vote."

See Opposition introduces register of voters including 180,125 dead (El Universal, June 6, 2013)


On June 12, 2013. Venezuelan diplomat: There is a new diplomatic relation with the US.

"Venezuelan Chargé d'Affaires to the US Calixto Ortega announced a meeting next week with the US Assistant Secretary for Western Hemisphere Affairs Roberta Jacobson."

See Venezuelan diplomat: There is a new diplomatic relation with the US (El Universal, June 12, 2013)


On June 23, 2013. Cecilia García Arocha: "There is a deliberate effort to do away with universities".

"Violence and budget cutbacks are used in attempts to put an end to quality university studies", said the rector of the Central University of Venezuela.

See "There is a deliberate effort to do away with universities" (El Universal, June 29, 2013)


On July 11, 2013. OPEC reports 1.35% slide in Venezuelan oil production.

"Output in June amounted to 2.77 million barrels per day of oil."

See OPEC reports 1.35% slide in Venezuelan oil production (El Universal, July 11, 2013)


On July 20, 2013. Venezuela ends rapprochement with the United States.

"The Venezuelan government criticized Washington's endorsement of the remarks made by United Nations Ambassador Nominee Samantha Power, who voiced concern about the issue of human rights in Venezuela. "Venezuela ends the process initiated in Guatemala talks", Caracas said late Friday in a communiqué."

See Venezuela ends rapprochement with the United States (El Universal, July 20, 2013)


On July 25, 2013. Simonovis taken to the Military Hospital for health problems.

Iván Simonovis, the ex chief of the Judicial Technical Police sentenced to 30-year imprisonment in connection with the events of April 11, 2002, was taken on Thursday to Caracas Military Hospital because of health problems.

See Simonovis taken to the Military Hospital for health problems (El Universal, July 25, 2013)


On August 20, 2013. Capriles: 'If passed, Venezuelans would disregard the Enabling Law'.

"The Constitution backs all Venezuelans up in disregarding those powers that would not exist, because they would be grounded on an utter violation. The Constitution itself forces us to enforce it", opposition leader Henrique Capriles stated on Tuesday on his live web show Venezuela Somos Todos ("Venezuela is all of us")

See Capriles: 'If passed, Venezuelans would disregard the Enabling Law' (El Universal, August 20, 2013)


On October 11, 2013, Reporters Without Borders shares the concerns voiced by organizations that represent journalists and media workers about the government's 7 October decree creating a new intelligence agency called the Strategic Centre for Homeland Security and Protection, or CESPPA.

See Access to information threatened by decree creating new intelligence agency (Reporters Without Borders, 11 October 2013)


On October 24, 2013. Venezuelan gov't rules out lift of price and exchange controls.

Maduro criticized Luis Vicente León, director of research firm Datanálisis, for blaming price and exchange controls for the current domestic economic situation.

See Venezuelan gov't rules out lift of price and exchange controls (El Universal, October 24, 2013)


On November 6, 2013. Venezuelan high court admits indictment against opposition deputy.

This decision paves the way to replace the dissenting congresswoman with her alternate, who, according to her, is ready to endorse the enabling law requested by President Nicolás Maduro.

See Venezuelan high court admits indictment against opposition deputy (El Universal, November 6, 2013)


On November 14, 2013. Enabling Law approved with 99 votes in its first reading.

Until Tuesday, the Government relied on 98 votes only to approve the law whereas opposition legislators totaled 67. However, the inconvenience was overcome two days ago after the revocation of opposition Deputy María Aranguren's parliamentary immunity.

See Enabling Law approved with 99 votes in its first reading (El Universal, November 14, 2013)


On December 5, 2013. CNE director: 'This is the most outrageous campaign in Venezuelan history'.

The municipal election campaign is "the most outrageous campaign Venezuela ever had in many years; I'd dare say in Venezuelan history", said Vicente Díaz, a member of the board of the National Electoral Council (CNE).
[There will be municipal elections on December 8, 2013]

See CNE director: 'This is the most outrageous campaign in Venezuelan history' (El Universal, December 5, 2013)


On December 8, 2013. Voters turnout in Venezuelan local election hits 58.92%.

The President of the National Electoral Council (CNE), Tibisay Lucena, announced on Sunday the preliminary results of the municipal vote, with 97.52% of results transmission. She reported that voters turnout nationwide hit 58.92%.

"Out of 355 municipalities, there is an irreversible trend in 257," Lucena noted. She outlined that ruling party United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) got 196 out of 335 mayor's offices, while opposition alliance Unified Democratic Panel (MUD) got 53.

Nationwide, the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) got 4,584,477 votes (44.16%); MUD, 4,252,082 votes (40.96), the Communist Party of Venezuela, 167,049 votes (1.6%) and other political parties got 1,376,056 votes (13.26%).

In Caracas, Venezuela's capital, the opposition alliance MUD candidates won the mayor's office of the Metropolitan Area of Caracas, and Baruta, Chacao, El Hatillo, and Sucre. Meanwhile, the Libertador mayor's office will continue under the leadership of ruling party PSUV.

See Voters turnout in Venezuelan local election hits 58.92% (El Universal, December 8, 2013)


On December 8, 2013. the Government did not get the majority of votes, even though the first reports released by the National Electoral Council (CNE) may make us think otherwise. It turns out that the PSUV (the Government's party) and the PCV (a left-wing party supporting the Government) reaped 5,111,336 votes (or 49.24% of valid ballots), whereas the MUD and its allies plus other parties standing against the Government obtained 5,268,828 votes (or 50.76%).

See VenEconomy: Is the Glass Half Full or Half Empty? (Latin American Herald Tribune - VenEconomy, December 11, 2013)


On January 22, 2014. Human Rights Watch lists Venezuela as 'feigned democracy'.

Based on this category prepared by Kenneth Roth, the CEO of Human Rights Watch, Venezuela appears in a chapter entitled Rights Struggles of 2013, along with Egypt, Tunisia, Turkey, Burma, Thailand, Kenya, Russia, Ukraine and China.

See HRW lists Venezuela as 'feigned democracy' (El Universal, January 22, 2014)


On February 13, 2014. Bench warrant against Venezuelan opposition leader Leopoldo López.

The capture of the founder of opposition political Voluntad Popular (People's Will, VP) party, Leopoldo López, on the grounds of his alleged liability for the violent events occurred in Caracas on Wednesday has been ordered.

On Wednesday evening, Caracas 16th Control Judge Ralenys Tovar Guillén admitted the petition made by the Attorney General Office to detain the ex Chacao mayor and ordered the Bolivarian Intelligence Service (Sebin) to apprehend him and enter his residence for the purposes of conducting a search, police sources reported.

Under warrant of arrest N 007-14, the judge ordered to capture López to sue him for a wide array of offenses, ranging from conspiracy, solicitation to commit a crime, public intimidation, fire of public premises, damages of public property, murder and terrorism.

See Bench warrant against Venezuelan opposition leader Leopoldo López (El Universal, February 13, 2014)


On February 17, 2014. Capriles advises Venezuelans to stay in focus and avoid violence.

The opposition leader urged the Venezuelan government "to set a deadline to disarm paramilitary groups. No more empty words".

See Capriles advises Venezuelans to stay focus and avoid violence (El Universal, February 17, 2014)


On February 18, 2014. Capriles joins march organized by Leopoldo López.

Henrique Capriles said via social networks that he was joining the march from the headquarters of the Simón Bolívar Command in Bello Monte, southeast Caracas.

See Capriles joins march organized by Leopoldo López (El Universal, February 18, 2014)


On February 18, 2014. Leopoldo López turns himself over to National Guard officers.

The leader of opposition party Voluntad Popular Leopoldo López turned himself in to officers of the National Guard at noon on Tuesday, a few minutes after he finished his speech before hundreds of dissenters gathered in Chacaíto, northeast Caracas.

See Leopoldo López turns himself over to National Guard officers (El Universal, February 18, 2014)


On February 24, 2014. Venezuelan gov't to face complaints for crimes against humanity.

Citizens Equity and Rights Foundation (Fundeci) works on a report on cases of cruelty and torture against Venezuelan detainees.

Thirty-seven young people were arrested on February 12 in Caracas during demonstrations. Most detainees were beaten and vexed by security officers.

See Venezuelan gov't to face complaints for crimes against humanity (El Universal, February 24, 2014)


Cierre de vías 24F: Users report closure of roadways since early hours in the morning of February 24. In the social networks during all of Sunday 23 there was a call for the closure of roadways with the hash tag "#24FGranBarricadaNacional".

See Cierre de vías 24F (Google Maps. Febrero 24, 2014)


On February 24, 2014. Russia makes an appeal not to meddle in Venezuela's affairs.

Moscow deems it "unacceptable any foreign meddling in the internal affairs of a sovereign State".

"The key is respect for the Constitution and democratically elected authorities of Venezuela headed by President Nicolás Maduro", the Russian Foreign Office said in a notice, Efe reported.

See Russia makes an appeal not to meddle in Venezuela's affairs (El Universal, February 24, 2014)


On February 26, 2014. OAS to hold special meeting on the Venezuelan crisis.

The Organization of American States (OAS) is to discuss on Thursday Panama's proposal to convene a meeting with the ambassadors of each Member State to find a solution to the crisis in Venezuela, where anti-Government demonstrations have resulted in 14 people dead in three weeks.

See OAS to hold special meeting on the Venezuelan crisis (El Universal, February 26, 2014)


On February 26, 2014. OAS puts off meeting of the Permanent Council about Venezuela.

Venezuelan Ambassador to the Organization of American States Roy Chaderton sent a letter to the OAS secretary General to suspend the meeting on grounds that it is up to Venezuela to convene such a meeting in the absence of the chair of the Permanent Council.

See OAS puts off meeting of the Permanent Council about Venezuela (El Universal, February 26, 2014)


On February 28, 2014. Students will remain in the streets despite military repression.

Caracas' takeover will be held on Sunday.

"No carnival for anybody here; we will continue in the streets. On Sunday, we will walk up to Brión square (eastern Caracas)", exclaimed Juan Requesens, the president of the Federation of Student Councils, Central University of Venezuela (UCV). Earlier, he had said once again that students will keep up demonstrating as long as all students are released and justice is administered.

See Students will remain in the streets despite military repression (El Universal, February 28, 2014)


On March 3, 2014. Capriles: We ask the UN to let us tell the truth on Venezuela.

"We have requested the United Nations to allow us to brief on what is actually going on instead of government tales".

See Capriles: We ask the UN to let us tell the truth on Venezuela (El Universal, March 3, 2014)


On March 4, 2014. FM Jaua: Venezuela does not need international mediation.

"There is no formal proposal of mediation from any country".

See FM Jaua: Venezuela does not need international mediation (El Universal, March 4, 2014)


On March 5, 2014. Nicolás Maduro severs relations with Panamá.

The Venezuelan president rejected any attempts at sending a special envoy from the Organization of American States (OAS).

See Nicolás Maduro severs relations with Panamá (El Universal, March 5, 2014)


On March 7, 2014. Dissenters warn Venezuelan gov't actions "sow the seeds of civil war".

The executive secretary of the opposition alliance Unified Democratic Panel (MUD), Ramón Guillermo Aveledo, claimed the Venezuelan president has called on collectives to attack dissenters.

See Dissenters warn Venezuelan gov't actions "sow the seeds of civil war" (El Universal, March 7, 2014)


On March 14, 2014. Relatives of two killed in north Venezuela finger the "collectives".

Two people were killed on Wednesday in Valencia, northern Venezuela, during a shooting that lasted nearly seven hours, according to information released by locals.

See Relatives of two killed in north Venezuela finger the "collectives" (El Universal, March 14, 2014)


On March 17, 2014. Busting the myth of freedom of speech in Venezuela.

The current reality seems to indicate that mass media is allowed to freely transmit information, as long as that information is favorable to the government. In other words, Venezuelans are able to express themselves and share their opinions as long as they are willing to pay the price that an opinion against the government can entail. Nicolás Maduro's statements about "freedom" of speech are clearly misleading.

From Busting the myth of freedom of speech in Venezuela (Caracas Chronicles, March 17, 2014)


On March 19, 2014. Venezuelan demonstrations back to the UN agenda.

Human Rights Watch made an appeal for the end of abuses against students demonstrating in Venezuela.

See Venezuelan demonstrations back to the UN agenda (El Universal, March 19, 2014)


On March 24, 2014. María Corina Machado: "This movement is unstoppable and irreversible".

"Over the past seven weeks, students on the streets, supported by citizens, have taken off the democratic mask of Maduro's regime, which has unleashed repression as never seen before under the dictatorships of Juan Vicente Gómez or Marcos Pérez Jiménez".

See "This movement is unstoppable and irreversible" (El Universal, March 24, 2014)


On April 4, 2014. VenEconomy: Hammer of Repression Is Still Banging Hard in Venezuela.

The government of Nicolás Maduro does not let go of its repressive hammer as it keeps banging hard here and there as it pleases.

It sieges and devastates large areas where peaceful demonstrations remain undefeated, mainly in the cities of San Cristóbal, Mérida, Barquisimeto, Valencia, Maracay and the east side of Caracas, the capital. The number of people killed by the repressive forces of the Government now reaches 40, while allegations of torture rose to 59, not to mention the countless wounded and detentions.

See VenEconomy: Hammer of Repression Is Still Banging Hard in Venezuela (Latin American Herald Tribune, April 4, 2014)


On April 7, 2014. "We have resisted because they attack and kill us like dogs".

"On every occasion the National Guard (BNB) and the Bolivarian National Police (PNB) arrive, charging at us with tear gas, pellets and hunting cartridges, more than 200 people who stay the night in the camp take refuge in a corner, with gas masks; we put our hands up, as a peace sign, and chant the national anthem."

Such is the account of Raimond Julién, one of the leaders of the student camp in front of the United Nations local chapter headquartered in Caracas. The move is set to make authorities know about their "peaceful resistance."

See "We have resisted because they attack and kill us like dogs" (El Universal, April 7, 2014)


On April 11, 2014. VenEconomy: Concealment as State Policy.

Soberanía, an NGO, released a report on its web site (www.soberania.org) on April 3, signed by 17 of Venezuela's most renowned economists, detailing how the official economic and social data of the country has been deteriorated. This silence not only violates the right of citizens to accurate and timely information on important matters, but also disrespects the obligation that rulers and other public officials have to regularly being accountable to the nation.

See VenEconomy: Concealment as State Policy (Latin American Herald Tribune, April 11, 2014)


On April 16, 2014. Decision on renewed testing of ex-chief police Simonovis labelled as "gibe".

"Why should renewed testing for the commissioner be accepted?"
Human rights advocate and attorney Elenis Rodríguez termed "gibe" the refusal by the Venezuelan government of an amnesty bill produced by the opposition Unified Democratic Panel (MUD) as part of the talks intended to break the stalemate in Venezuela.

See Decision on renewed testing of ex-chief police Simonovis labelled as "gibe" (El Universal, April 16, 2014)


On April 25, 2014. Venezuelan top court bans spontaneous peaceful protests.

The court ordered prosecuting protesters breaking the new rule.

See Venezuelan top court bans spontaneous peaceful protests (El Universal, April 25, 2014)


On May 7, 2014. VenEconomy: From Dead Calm to Perfect Storm?

A dead calm is felt in Venezuela at the moment; an apparent stillness that, as sailors themselves say, causes despair and portends eventual storms.

And even sadder is the dead calm caused by the helplessness felt by the population in the face of an oppressive State, which has fiercely made use of all its repressive and judicial powers against young - and not so young - people who took the streets legitimately to express themselves against all the factors that have worsened grave issues such as personal insecurity, scarcity and the high cost of living courtesy of the Cuban Castro-communist regime.

See VenEconomy: From Dead Calm to Perfect Storm? (Latin American Herald Tribune, May 7, 2014)


On May 12, 2014. As many as 10,706 Venezuelans have sought asylum in the US.

Growing migration of Venezuelans to the United States (215,023 legal residents) has influenced applications for asylum on grounds of political persecution. From 1998 through 2013, a total of 10,706 Venezuelans have sought asylum in the United States.

Over the past 15 years, 2,043 petitions have been granted, versus 3,686 denied. Other 4,977 applications were withdrawn, abandoned or took another course, based on the numbers supplied by the US Department of Justice.

In the past five years (2009-2013) such applications have escalated. Asylum in the United States has been sought by 1,724 Venezuelans; 640 of which were granted, 780 denied and 1,420 took another course.

See As many as 10,706 Venezuelans have sought asylum in the US (El Universal, May 12, 2014)


On May 20, 2014. US Senate okays sanctions on Venezuelan government officials.

Upon the consent of the 18-member panel, including 10 Democrats, the initiative will be forwarded to the plenary session of the US Senate.

See US Senate okays sanctions on Venezuelan government officials (El Universal, May 20, 2014)


On May 27, 2014. Imprisoned former police chief on hunger strike.

Iván Simonovis, a former police chief of the Caracas Metropolitan Police who was sentenced to 30 years in prison over the April 2012 coup, on Tuesday went on a hunger strike to reject the court's delay in deciding whether he will be granted humanitarian release due to his poor health condition, a petition filed by his defense lawyers nearly two years ago.

Reading a letter from Simonovis, defense lawyer José Luis Tamayo made the announcement.

Tamayo pointed out that the former police chief was not found guilty of crimes against humanity, as many government officials have claimed.

See Imprisoned former police chief on hunger strike (El Universal, May 27, 2014)


On May 28, 2014. Venezuelan gov't involves María Machado in new plot.

Caracas Mayor Jorge Rodríguez produced as evidence a number of e-mails presumably from deposed opposition deputy María Corina Machado.

Rodríguez showed a number of e-mails, presumably from María Corina Machado. In such e-mails forwarded to constitutionalist Gustavo Tarre, the former deputy regrets the unresponsiveness of some politicians with regard to her dismissal from the National Assembly (AN).

He contended that plotters schemed to kill Diosdado Cabello, Aragua state governor Tareck el Aissami and Minister of the Interior Miguel Rodríguez Torres.

See Venezuelan gov't involves María Machado in new plot (El Universal, May 28, 2014)


On May 28, 2014. Machado to Maduro: Neither assassination nor coup. Step down.

"I reaffirm it, Mr. Maduro, neither assassination nor coup. Step down," declared on Wednesday the leader of the opposition movement Vente Venezuela, María Corina Machado, who rejected as a "clumsy scam" the allegations by top Venezuelan government officers that she is involved in an alleged coup and assassination scheme.

The deposed congresswoman said that the top government officials' accusations against her have clearly shown that "the security bodies of Venezuela are a disgrace." She stressed that "the highest political leaders of the revolution," along with the state security and intelligence agencies, intend to persecute and intimidate citizens.

See Machado to Maduro: Neither assassination nor coup. Step down (El Universal, May 28, 2014)


On June 9, 2014. Venezuelan dissenters to seek early elections.

Deposed opposition Deputy María Corina Machado set out a three-step plan for political change.

"It is time to reap the achievements of this heroic deed", stated last Sunday opposition leader María Corina Machado from a platform in Chacaíto (east Caracas) before a modest rally. She announced, along with opposition party Voluntad Popular leaders, "the route for the national liberation".

Machado set out a three-step plan for the "reaping". The first step is to create "a wide bottom-up unity, where every social expression is heard. A unity that allows MUD's (Democratic Unified Panel) parties and leaders such as Henrique Capriles, Antonio Ledezma, and Leopoldo López to be brought together. We must incorporate the students' movement, professional associations, citizens' assemblies, trade unions, grassroots groups, communal councils, and cultural groups", among others.

The idea is them to be "united in a great national movement to reach consensus on the Venezuela we want", said Machado.

In her view, the second step is to "demand the resignation of (president) Nicolás Maduro amid a great national outcry".

The last step of the road map is to "renew a social pact, where all Venezuelans can get together and renew public powers". Machado pointed out that the mechanisms are on the Constitution: an amendment or a National Constituent Assembly.

See Venezuelan dissenters to seek early elections (El Universal, June 9, 2014)


On June 11, 2014. VenEconomy: Culpable Silence.

Without a doubt, Venezuela is going through the most serious economic crisis in its entire history: Unbearable shortages that extend to food products, medicines and all kinds of basic consumer goods and key inputs to the industry and agricultural sector of the country. The country is also falling short of foreign currency, making it harder to pay for imports and the debts every time. An inflation rate that may exceed 80% or more by the end of this year. The country no longer has access to credit; not even the one that China used to provide. The options that the country has so far are misery, hunger and pests; or maybe signing up for an IMF-style adjustment program.

Meanwhile, the Government and its submissive public institutions maintain a culpable silence with regard to the accountability and key information that both the Constitution and laws oblige them to inform the population about the nation's today economic reality. A serious, unwise and negligent omission that should lead to legal responsibilities for the officials involved. But, in today's Venezuela, this culpable silence also extends to the Office of the Comptroller, the Parliament and the judiciary system, institutions called on to be the guarantors of transparency in the management of the State and the compliance with laws and accountability, for they are all clung to the "revolutionary" process.

See VenEconomy: Culpable Silence (Latin American Herald Tribune, June 11, 2014)


On June 23, 2014. HRW denounces at the UN human rights abuses by Venezuela.

Human Rights Watch (HRW) expressed on Monday at the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) its deep concerns over the serious human rights situation in Venezuela, describing it as "the most alarming" the country has gone through in years.

"They (law enforcement agents) deliberately attacked journalists and other people who took photographs or recorded videos of repression against protesters, yet they allowed pro-government armed groups to attack demonstrators. Sometimes they (officers) even collaborated with them" the organization commented.

See HRW denounces at the UN human rights abuses by Venezuela (El Universal, June 23, 2014)


On July 5, 2014. A new era has begun for El Universal.

One hundred and five years after its foundation, El Universal gets ready to begin a new era following a change in its shareholding structure. From now on, the Spanish investment firm Epalisticia joins the daily newspaper, presided over by Engineer Jesús Abreu Anselmi.

Founded in 1909, El Universal came out to the streets in a four-page edition under a principle set by its first editor, poet Andrés Mata. Such principle has remained "as is" for over a century: freedom of expression.

See A new era has begun for El Universal (El Universal, July 5, 2014)


On July 13, 2014. Infodio: Spain's €3,500 Epalisticia buys El Universal for €90 million.

Insistent rumours had been making the rounds for some time about the alleged sale of El Universal, Venezuela's oldest and last standing independent newspaper. The sale, for an alleged €90 million, was confirmed this week. The new director is meant to be Jesús Abreu Anselmi. Abreu did very little to establish his credibility and calm fears about ultimate controlling party, when he pointed at Spain's Epalisticia S.L. as the group behind the purchase. Epalisticia S.L. is a €3,500 company, which started operations less than a year ago.

See [UPDATED] Spain's €3,500 Epalisticia buys El Universal for €90 million (Infodio, Alek Boyd. July 13, 2014)


On July 28, 2014. VenEconomy: The Absurdities of the Carvajal Case.

A series of shocking and still incomprehensible events has taken place in Aruba since last Thursday with the arrest of the former director of Venezuela's Military Intelligence (DIM), retired Army General Hugo Carvajal.

See VenEconomy: The Absurdities of the Carvajal Case (Latin American Herald Tribune, July 28, 2014)


On August 1, 2014. VenEconomy: Venezuela's Controversial Gas Price Hike.

On Thursday, President Nicolás Maduro put at the top of the national agenda the start of a discussion regarding an increase in gas prices in Venezuela.

Indeed, this is a necessary discussion to be held in a country with the lowest gas prices in the world (Bs.0.097 per liter, or $0.0015 per liter at official exchange rate and $0.0019 per liter at SICAD II exchange rate, which is equivalent to seven cents per gallon at a time when most countries sell it at more than $1 per liter or $3.50 per gallon).

See VenEconomy: Venezuela's Controversial Gas Price Hike (Latin American Herald Tribune, August 1, 2014)


On August 11, 2014. VenEconomy: The Venezuela's Opposition 'Shadow Cabinet'.

This is the right time for the MUD to take up a proposal made several years ago by renowned analysts and media outlets such as José Toro Hardy, a former member of the Board of Directors of state-run oil company PDVSA; Alfonso Molina, a member of civil association Liderazgo y Visión; Leonardo Palacios, a Venezuelan lawyer and university professor; Aurelio Concheso, head of business association Fedecámaras, and local newspaper TalCual: that of setting up a "Shadow Cabinet".

It should be noted that a Shadow Cabinet is a mechanism used in democracies around the world, especially in the UK, Canada, France, Romania and Australia. It is about an institution where prominent members of the opposition are assigned the task of following the steps of the Government's main ministers, each one within their own field of work, with the purpose of establishing positions with regard to the actions performed by them.

See VenEconomy: The Venezuela's Opposition 'Shadow Cabinet' (Latin American Herald Tribune, August 11, 2014)


On August 19, 2014. VenEconomy: ... And Everything Will Remain the Same in Venezuela.

Venezuela has increased the pace of the decline that began during the last years of the late Hugo Chávez in the hands of his successor, Nicolás Maduro. Maduro has been unable and has not wanted to amend the diverse and profound distortions that have become entrenched in the country during 15 years of "revolution."

Counting on the complicity of the central bank, the National Executive is vainly trying to conceal the nation's figures of inflation and scarcity. It hasn't released consumer price index data for two months and has remained mum on scarcity indicators for five months.

See VenEconomía: ... And Everything Will Remain the Same in Venezuela (Latin American Herald Tribune, August 19, 2014)


On August 22 2014. VenEconomy: The Venezuelan Government's Got a Nerve!

It turns out that Venezuela has reached such a situation in the lack of foreign currency to import products and goods required by citizens to survive, despite the fact of having the world's largest oil and gas reserves with revenues of $90-$100 per barrel due to exports of crude oil.

Unfortunately, the importing process has become vital for a country with nearly no domestic production from the private sector thanks to the misappropriation of lands, private industries and properties on the part of the Government; and that at the same time, it has destroyed all the productive apparatus of the State through politicization, inefficiency, unproductiveness and corruption.

See VenEconomy: The Venezuelan Government's Got a Nerve! (Latin American Herald Tribune, August 22, 2014)


On August 26 2014. VenEconomy: Maduro Sneaks Out of Venezuela, Meets with Fidel

Maduro sneaked out of Venezuela to meet with the man calling the shots in Cuba for over 50 years – and not once but twice in less than a month; and everybody found out about these sudden trips when Fidel Castro himself made mention of them in his column "Reflexiones" (Reflections) published by Cuban daily Granma.

See VenEconomy: Maduro Sneaks Out of Venezuela, Meets with Fidel (Latin American Herald Tribune, August 26, 2014)


On August 27 2014. VenEconomy: The Chinese Have Arrived in Venezuela!

Today the presence of the Chinese in Venezuela is an inescapable and increasingly tangible reality. Both countries have signed agreements of all kinds in some 15 strategic areas: housing, industry, agriculture, technology, transportation, telecommunications and, naturally, oil, are among the most sensitive areas, especially since the end of July of this year when the Chinese president, Xi Jinping, visited the country and signed about 38 agreements, out of which 21 are "private", meaning that these were not even disclosed to the population, although the public opinion has not been well informed about the rest of them either.

See VenEconomy: The Chinese Have Arrived in Venezuela! (Latin American Herald Tribune, August 27, 2014)


On August 28 2014. VenEconomy: Is This the Oil Sovereignty Venezuela Brags About?

It turns out that the country's goose that lays the golden eggs, or the "very sovereign" PDVSA, would be "studying" the possibility to import light Saharan Blend crude oil from Algeria, according to a report by Mariana Párraga of the Reuters news agency, after having access to a document of the state-run oil company.

See VenEconomy: Is This the Oil Sovereignty Venezuela Brags About? (Latin American Herald Tribune, August 28, 2014)


On August 29 2014. VenEconomy: A Continued Coup against Venezuela's Regional Powers

It is an affront to the dictatorial minds of those who control the Central Government and have taken hold of the rest of Venezuela's public authorities that leaders from the Democratic Unity (MUD) have been elected to be at the forefront of three governorates, and more than 70 mayoralties.

So much so that, refused to recognize the legitimacy of Henrique Capriles as governor of Miranda state, President Nicolás Maduro decided to give rise to the so-called "Miranda Corporation", a body that serves as a parallel authority to the governorate in which he appointed Elías Jaua, the PSUV ruling party candidate who lost to Capriles during the regional elections held in December of 2012.

See VenEconomy: A Continued Coup against Venezuela's Regional Powers (Latin American Herald Tribune, August 29, 2014)


On September 1 2014. VenEconomy: Tightening the Nuts of Venezuelans' Freedoms

It is a true fact that the Venezuelan government has been tightening the nuts of the freedom of information, expression and opinion for several years now. Three universal human rights guaranteed in the national Constitution are being undermined by this so-called "beautiful revolution".

See VenEconomy: Tightening the Nuts of Venezuelans' Freedoms (Latin American Herald Tribune, September 1, 2014)


On September 2 2014. VenEconomy: The Ravings of Venezuela's Nicolás Maduro

Things seem to be taking an ugly turn for Venezuelan citizens.

Something that should not be surprising for anybody because, first of all, it had been previously warned by independent analysts and, second of all, because it is quite predictable that a situation gets out of control when is irresponsibly handled with malicious intentions.

It gives us the impression that President Nicolás Maduro has not made up his mind yet about making the right decisions that would help revive the country.

See VenEconomy: The Ravings of Venezuela's Nicolás Maduro (Latin American Herald Tribune, September 2, 2014)


On September 16 2014. VenEconomy: The Venezuelan Government's Tactic of Evading the Issue

In order to hide the state of destruction of the economy and the debasement of society into which it has plunged Venezuela over the past 15 years, the Venezuelan government has always opted for the path of evading the issue or that of blaming others for its own misdeeds.

This tactic, used in different areas of national concern and to solve various problems, is made particularly evident by the absence of reliable information regarding the huge number of homicides throughout the national territory and showing much lower figures than those reported by independent agencies instead. Or when, underestimating the intelligence of Venezuelan citizens, government officials deliver opinions with no justifiable basis.

See VenEconomy: The Venezuelan Government's Tactic of Evading the Issue (Latin American Herald Tribune, September 16, 2014)


On September 22 2014. VenEconomy: The Masquerade of the Venezuelan Government

Last Friday, a judge granted a humanitarian measure of "house arrest due to health reasons" in favor of police commissioner Iván Simonovis (a political prisoner of Hugo Chávez), after serving 9 years and 299 days of unjust imprisonment out of a 30-year sentence for the deaths of the April 11 of 2002 tragic events in Caracas.

See VenEconomy: The Masquerade of the Venezuelan Government (Latin American Herald Tribune, September 22, 2014)


On September 23 2014. VenEconomy: The Thin Ice of the Venezuelan Revolution

Just five years away from reaching 20, the damage caused to Venezuela -- a country that with its natural resources could have become the most developed in the continent -- by the past 15 years of Bolivarian revolution is unimaginable. It is simply impossible to imagine how far this involution of the country is going to get if a communist state is imposed in Venezuela.

See VenEconomy: The Thin Ice of the Venezuelan Revolution (Latin American Herald Tribune, September 23, 2014)


On September 24 2014. VenEconomy: Will Venezuela's Maduro Come Out of the Empire Unharmed?

President Nicolás Maduro left Venezuela, a country that has become a living hell for his fellow citizens plagued by rampant crime, soaring inflation, general shortages and a marked deterioration in the public healthcare system, for a little while to land in the U.S. Empire he attacks – and fears – so much.

He spoke of the climate change, describing it as "the main threat to human survival of this century", which, according to his own words, essentially resulted from "the crisis of a capitalist model of civilization". (But did not say a word about a big "mountain" of coke, a byproduct of heavy oil upgraders at the Jose refinery in Anzoátegui state.)

After his presentation in the U.S. Empire, Maduro and his court are seeking the admission of Venezuela as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, whose nomination on Wednesday was being decided by the General Assembly through secret ballot. Venezuela needs two-thirds of the votes of the 193 member nations to make it in. If successful, it would mark the fifth time that Venezuela occupies this post after the following periods: 1962-1963 / 1977-1978 / 1986-1987 and 1992-1993.

But we should ask ourselves if Maduro will come out of the U.S. Empire unharmed, because President Barack Obama pointed out that his country stands by the political prisoners of Maduro such as Leopoldo López, among many others. Obama was blunt when he said that "these citizens remind us why civil society is so essential", as he reminded the importance of civil society and the people’s struggle for their rights.

See VenEconomy: Will Venezuela’s Maduro Come Out of the Empire Unharmed? (Latin American Herald Tribune, September 24, 2014)


On September 25 2014. VenEconomy: A Communal State Moves Forward in Venezuela

When Nicolás Maduro finally revealed what the much-trumpeted "shakeup" was all about on September 5, he performed a major cabinet reshuffle that was clouded by the departure of the "king of oil and sheik of the Venezuelan economy", Rafael Ramírez, from three of his multiple public offices (Ministry of Oil and Mining, head of PDVSA, and Vice President of Economic Affairs).

This important and strategic piece moved by Maduro was the transfer of Elías Jaua, the former chancellor, to two newly created public offices: the Vice Presidency of Socialism Development and Eco-socialism and the Ministry of Communes and Social Movements.

What many did not realize is that with these appointments Maduro was taking a new step toward the consolidation of the so-called "Communal State" as outlined in the Plan of the Homeland by the late Hugo Chávez to build the Socialism of the 21st century, in other words, the "Cubanization of Venezuela".

See VenEconomy: A Communal State Moves Forward in Venezuela (Latin American Herald Tribune, September 25, 2014)


On September 29 2014. VenEconomy: Jesús Torrealba - The Missing Link of Venezuela's Democratic Machinery

After so much stumbling around for months, the opposition Democratic Unity coalition (MUD) appointed Venezuelan journalist and community activist Jesús "Chuo" Torrealba as its executive secretary, a managerial position held by Ramón Guillermo Aveledo until July 30.

This appointment is being welcomed very positively by the public opinion. He has raised endless expectations, and while some critics remain somewhat skeptic due to his communist past, he has brought a breath of fresh air to Venezuela's broad democratic sector that until now had been feeling stomped on and without hope by the momentum of events.

See VenEconomy: Jesús Torrealba - The Missing Link of Venezuela's Democratic Machinery (Latin American Herald Tribune, September 29, 2014)


On October 20 2014. VenEconomy: Venezuela Pays for Expropriation Mistakes

Venezuela today is paying for the irresponsible and insatiable wave of expropriations which, on the one hand, has taken national production to critical levels and led the country to rely on imports for its livelihood; and on the other, has discouraged investment capital while making the State go to arbitration courts so it can respond to complaints from international companies whose rights have been violated.

See VenEconomy: Venezuela Pays for Expropriation Mistakes (Latin American Herald Tribune, October 20, 2014)


On November 6 2014. VenEconomy: The Venezuelan Government Has the Floor!

The exit to the harsh economic and social crisis that lies heavy on Venezuela consists, without a doubt, of resolving the political and governance crisis in a climate of peace, where consensus, the transparency of the processes, the credibility of public institutions and authorities, and the respect for the will of the people prevail. Unfortunately, these four variables are currently in the tightrope because of a political elite that sees itself lasting in power forever, never going unpunished, and always above the Constitution and laws.

For starters, the ruling elite has marred the climate of peace in the country through the force of a virulent and stigmatizing speech, meant for those Venezuelans who disagree with its policies and governance methods; through an excessive repression and firepower (from the State and its paramilitary groups); through the abuse of the Judiciary to prosecute, subdue and violate the rights and freedoms of those opposing it.

See VenEconomy: The Venezuelan Government Has the Floor! (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 6 2014)


On November 7 2014. VenEconomy: The Totalitarian Temptation

Last week, the NGO Cedice Libertad, in alliance with the Liberal Network for Latin America (Relial) and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation, commemorated the 25th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall with the "International Forum: The Totalitarian Temptation", which had Mauricio Rojas, a former member of Chile's Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR) that got away from Marxism forever, PhD in Economics, Assistant Professor at the University of Lund (Sweden) and former member of the Parliament of Sweden, as special guest. He was joined by Antonio Sánchez García as a commentator, a writer, essayist, professor of contemporary philosophy at the Central University of Venezuela (UCV), and a convinced Chilean-Venezuelan democrat who opposes any advance of a totalitarian regime in Venezuela and Latin America.

The lectures, among other topics, had to do with the presence of "caudillismo" in Latin America with all its pledges and temptations for magical solutions to the problems of the population, and the reason why many countries fall into these temptations as they end up with terrible dictatorships all the time. Dictatorships that, on the one hand, drag many idealists into them, who in most cases become terrible oppressors of their peoples. And on the other, plunge countries into rancor and division, where the sense of community and civic friendship is lost, while resources are squandered instead of being invested in the development of the country, as has been the case of Cuba and now Venezuela.

See VenEconomy: The Totalitarian Temptation (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 7 2014)


On November 11 2014. VenEconomy: Venezuela Goes Through the Tunnel of Torture

Now it seems that the method of torture has begun to take root in Venezuela again with the governments of Chávez and his successor Nicolás Maduro. Such have been the outrages with the implementation of torture, especially since the beginning of January of this year, that several international bodies are calling on the Government to return to good judgment, reason and reconciliation between the sectors at odds at political level.

See VenEconomy: Venezuela Goes Through the Tunnel of Torture (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 11 2014)


On November 12 2014. VenEconomy: Venezuela Remains Firmly on the Wrong Path

On Tuesday, during the Perspectivas (Outlook) 2015 forum hosted by the Venezuelan Confederation of Industrialists (Conindustria), a diagnosis of the serious situation taking place in the industrial sector deemed vital for the development of the productive economy and the impact it will have on the rest of the society was made.

The forum kicked off presenting the key developments of this year characterized, among other things, by the severe difficulties in the access to foreign currency for imports (a reduction of 20%), a situation that has hampered the access to raw materials and hence caused a significant decline in production volumes.

See VenEconomy: Venezuela Remains Firmly on the Wrong Path (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 12 2014)


On November 13 2014. VenEconomy: Maduro's Government is Alone, Weak and Without Resources

The government of Nicolás Maduro finds itself desperate because of a continuous drop in oil prices that has lasted over a month, surely after realizing that the long oil boom period has come to an end, and that it wasted one of the best opportunities that the country has ever had for catapulting into development over the past 15 years.

See VenEconomy: Maduro's Government is Alone, Weak and Without Resources (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 13 2014)


On November 14 2014. VenEconomy: No Ceiling for the Exchange Rate in Venezuela?

A year ago, Venezuela's then-Vice President for the Economic Area, Rafael Ramírez, stated that the Government would "crush" the dollar sold in the parallel market that fetched Bs.60 per dollar. According to Ramirez, the exchange rate went out of control after a "relentless attack" against the national economy since the health of the leader of the Venezuelan revolution, Hugo Chávez, deteriorated in November of 2012. He emphatically claimed that "we are going to crush it (when referring to the parallel dollar), because we are going to recoup all those dollars they are stealing from the nation through over-invoicing or diversion of the dollars allocated by the Commission for the Administration of Currency Exchange (Cadivi)."

Another unfulfilled promise! The rate continued to climb, reaching Bs.100 per dollar. For several weeks, it seemed it was stabilizing at that level. Yet, prices of the parallel dollar started to rise again from October 23, hovering around Bs.120 per dollar on November 14; and worst still, no one knows what the ceiling is going to be.

See VenEconomy: No Ceiling for the Exchange Rate in Venezuela? (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 14 2014)


On November 17 2014. VenEconomy: Venezuela's Controversial External Debt

The deadline for the payment of more than $4.6 billion in Venezuelan external debt service in October sparked a controversy at the end of September of this year. Some analysts questioned whether the Government could - or should - honor these commitments due to the low levels of international reserves, and many thought that it should first pay the private providers that must keep the supply of goods into the country, which are paralyzed for this very same reason.

Now, with a recent slump in oil prices already hovering around $70 per barrel, the question whether Venezuela will or will not be able to comply with the payment of its external debt -- or if it will be able to refinance it in the near future -- is raised once more.

See VenEconomy: Venezuela's Controversial External Debt (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 17 2014)


On November 18 2014. VenEconomy: The Sham of the Bolivarian Enabling Laws

The enabling laws are special powers that have been granted not only in Venezuela since last century to legislate in times of natural disasters and war situations, but also in cases of financial and economic emergencies. But, since the late Hugo Chávez came to power, these "enabling laws" have served for the President to enact all sorts of laws without the "need" to consult them with the Parliament or the public opinion.

The case is that the four enabling laws granted to Chávez, and that single one to Maduro, have been used to build a wide "legal" network that underpins and deepens the so-called "Socialism of the 21st century".

See VenEconomy: The Sham of the Bolivarian Enabling Laws (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 18 2014)


On November 19 2014. VenEconomy: The Legislative Fraud in Venezuela

Once more a ruler of the "revolution" of the 21st century is cooking up a legislative fraud to keep the country against the wall of failure and economic and social degradation.

On November 13 of 2001, Hugo Chávez passed 49 decree-laws all at once as the expiration of his second enabling law granted by the Parliament neared. Their contents were contrary to an open and dynamic economy, which triggered a general strike led by the Confederation of Workers of Venezuela (CTV), Fedecámaras (a business association) and several opposition political parties on December 10 of that year.

In spite of the fact that Nicolás Maduro never broke the record set by Chávez, only hours before the expiration of an enabling law granted by the Parliament last year, he passed 28 new decree-laws related to the economic area on Tuesday that joined 13 other decree-laws passed in November of 2013 for the deepening of the so-called Plan for the Homeland (a governance program inherited from Chávez that was also signed into law thanks to Maduro and an enabling decree in December of 2013).

See VenEconomy: The Legislative Fraud in Venezuela (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 19 2014)


On November 20 2014. VenEconomy: An Irrelevant, Pernicious Economic Package for Venezuela

Some say that what starts wrong, ends bad.
And that's what happened with the special powers granted to President Nicolás Maduro a year ago by a parliamentary majority of the ruling party PSUV through legal tricks and vote-buying to achieve the three-fifths required by the Constitution so the Legislature can delegate its powers to the National Executive.

A delegation of powers that, for a fifth time, fully erased the political plurality guaranteed by a democratic Parliament; that eliminates a compulsory popular consultation provided for by the National Constitution for the enactment of laws; and that obscures the legal framework that regulates the life of the nation. A year ago, just as happened on four occasions during the government of the late Hugo Chávez, the ruling coalition gave a blow to the Parliament.

On Wednesday, closing the 12-month period that enabled him to legislate at his discretion, Maduro put the icing on the revolutionary cake by passing 28 decree-laws that will undermine the system of economic freedoms in Venezuela and hence push the population into greater poverty and despair.

See VenEconomy: An Irrelevant, Pernicious Economic Package for Venezuela (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 20 2014)


On November 21 2014. VenEconomy: A Thorn in the Side of the Venezuelan Dictatorship

November of 2014 will definitely be remembered in the history of Venezuela for the grotesque advance of its dictatorial regime.

On the one hand, 28 decree-laws (only 16 have been revealed so far) were passed all at once as the special legislative powers granted by the Parliament to President Nicolás Maduro for 12 months last year reached their expiration date this week. All of these decree-laws clearly violate constitutional provisions and ignore economic and citizens' rights.

And on the other, the Government is giving clear signs that it won't have any respect either for the Constitution, or the political plurality of a democracy or the ideological diversity of participatory citizens to form a Supreme Court of Justice and a National Electoral Council, both autonomous and independent from the Executive Branch. Quite grotesque are all the dirty little tricks and manipulations of the processes for the selection of candidates that will take part of these two institutions that are key to the survival of democracy and the system of freedoms in Venezuela.

See VenEconomy: A Thorn in the Side of the Venezuelan Dictatorship (Latin American Herald Tribune, November 21 2014)




Results:


Visit sites from both groups to inform your opinion, but ...


Falling Bytes!  Watch out for falling bytes!  Falling Bytes!

Warning: Use a High Security Level for browsing in these sites.
Register them as Restricted sites (in MS Internet Explorer):
 (Menu: Tools - Internet Options - Security - Restricted sites - Sites - Add).
Do not download any software or run scripts from them, and delete their cookies; they are tagging "Spyware".
(See the section on PC Security)


Venezuelan "Officialist" Contemporary Politics   (1999 - 2014):

www.aporrea.org aporrea.org - Venezuela "Agencia popular alternativa de noticias"
autonomiaislamicawayuu.blogspot.com Autonomia Islámica Wayuu "Hezbollah Venezuela", Teodoro Darnott
www.geocities.com/antiescual/index2.html Cibernéticos Bolivarianos El Portal Bolivariano [disabled]
www.angelfire.com/nb/17m/ Círculo Bolivariano 17 de Marzo Página de apoyo al proceso de cambios liderado por Hugo Chávez Frías
www.geocities.com/circulobolivarianocr/ Círculo Bolivariano Abre Brecha Parroquia 23 de Enero [disabled]
www.cabron.com/cbc/ Círculo Bolivariano de Cincinati (Cincinnati Bolivarian Circle - The Red Machine)
www.geocities.com/contragobernanza/ Contragobernanza "Contra el Gobierno de las Empresas" [disabled]
www.el23.net el 23 barrios, callejones y sueños
www.elmilitante.org El Militante Corriente Marxista Internacional
 - www.luchadeclases.org.ve Lucha de Clases (Venezuela)
www.frentefranciscodemiranda.org.ve Frente Francisco de Miranda [disabled]
www.globalexchange.org Global Exchange "Building People-to-People Ties"
www.handsoffvenezuela.org Hands Off Venezuela! "In Solidarity with the Venezuelan Revolution"
www.iglesiacatolicareformada.com Iglesia Catolica Reformada de Venezuela
www.lasverdadesdemiguel.net Las Verdades de Miguel (Miguel Salazar)
www.observatoriodemedios.org.ve Observatorio Global de Medios de Venezuela
www.ojoelectoral.org/index.php Ojo Electoral (Asociación Civil)
www.alternativabolivariana.org Portal ALBA-TCP "Alternativa Bolivariana para la América"
www.chavezcode.com Postcards from the Revolution (Eva Golinger)
www.radiodefensavenezuela.com Radio Defensa Venezuela (Jesús R. Soto)
www.venezuelanalysis.com Venezuelanalysis.com "On line News, Views and Analysis from Venezuela"
www.rethinkvenezuela.com Venezuela Information Office (VIO) "to educate the public about contemporary Venezuela" [disabled]
vheadlinevenezuelanews.blogspot.com - VHeadline Venezuela News en Español, Roy S. Carson
www.vheadline.com - VHeadline: News & Views about Venezuela, Roy S. Carson

Also see the official sites of the Venezuelan Government in the main section of this page.


The Opposite Side of the Coin   (2002 - 2014):
[I suggest to visit these Websites and leave comments]

11abril.com
Adolfo R. Taylhardat
Alcaldía de Baruta
Alcaldía de Chacao
Asociación Civil Ciudadanía Activa
Asociación Civil Control Ciudadano (para la Seguridad, la Defensa y la Fuerza Armada Nacional)
Centro de Divulgación del Conocimiento Económico para la Libertad (CEDICE) (Asociación Civil - 25 años)
Comando Nacional de la Resistencia (CNR)
Congreso Ciudadano para la Reconstrucción Nacional - Futuro para Todos
Democracy and Development (Reports on Venezuela, Pedro Pablo Aguilar)
Democracy on Trial (Venezuela Political Rights Violation Goes to Court)
DolarToday.com (Dólar paralelo en Venezuela)
Eduardo Casanova (Escritor Venezolano)
El Gusano de Luz
enOpinión (Omar Estacio)
EntornoInteligente.com (Información Estratégica)
EsData (Por el derecho a elegir en Venezuela)
 - The Systematic Annihilation of The Right to Vote in Venezuela (July 16, '07, .pdf, 222 KB)
 - What Is The Venezuelan National Electoral Council Concealing? And, Why? (Sep, '07, .pdf, 71 KB)
Foro de Oposición Venezolana (Yahoo! Grupos)
Frente Patriótico (compromiso existencial de luchar por el rescate de la Democracia)
Fuerza Solidaria (Asociación Civil, Presidente: Alejandro Peña Esclusa)
 - Futuro de venezolanos depende de liberación de Álvarez Paz (Marzo 23 '10)
 - ¿Quién es y qué ha hecho Alejandro Peña Esclusa? (Agosto 1 '10)
 - Alejandro Peña Esclusa desde la cárcel: "Mi lucha apenas comienza" (Agosto 2 '10)
 - Peña Esclusa, la antítesis de Chávez (Agosto 5 '10)
 - Asdrubal Aguiar: "Caso Peña Esclusa clama al Cielo" (Agosto 8 '10)
 - Luis Marín: "El caso Peña Esclusa como modelo" (Enero 24 '11)
 - Peña Esclusa, preso político de Chávez (Febrero 20 '11)
 - Alejandro Peña Esclusa: una lucha sin tregua (Abril 26 '11)
 - "La reconciliación del país comienza con la liberación de los presos políticos" (Julio 30 '11)
 - "Prohiben a Peña Esclusa hablar a medios de comunicación" (Agosto 2 '11)
 - "Califican como censura previa restricciones a Peña Esclusa" (Agosto 3 '11)
Ibéyise Pacheco
Juzgar a Chávez
La Verdad nos hará Libres!! - Sólo la Verdad!! (Néstor Luis Álvarez M.)
Liderazgo y Visión (Asociación Civil. Un Sueño para Venezuela. Gerver Torres, Director General)
Literanova (Literatura - Política - Arte. Eduardo Casanova)
Marcos Petri (Lo De Hoy Venezuela)
Maduradas.com
Moisés Naím
Movimiento 2D (Democracia y Libertad)
Movimiento Demócrata Liberal (Derecha política autonomista)
notiven.com (Noticias de Venezuela)
Organización de Venezolanos en el Exilio (ORVEX)
 - Ruédalo TV
palahaya.com (Denuncia contra Hugo Chávez Frías por los Crímenes de Lesa Humanidad Cometidos en Venezuela)
Pensar en Venezuela (Asociación Civil)
Por la Conciencia
 - Campaña presidencial bajo la sombra del fraude (El Tabú)
 - Frente a Las primarias: Verdades Incómodas o la Falacia de la Economía del Voto
Pro Venezuela Organization (ProVeO) (Aleksander Boyd, Founder and Director)
Rafael Rivero Muñoz (Acción Cívica)
Resistencia Civil de Venezolanos en el Exterior (RECIVEX)
Roberto Weil (Caricature Drawings)
RunRun.es (Nelson Bocaranda)
Sammy Eppel (Artículos de Prensa)
Soberanía (Ambiente, Energía, Política)
Tiempo de Palabra (Carlos Blanco)
Unidad Venezuela (Mesa de la Unidad Democrática - MUD)
Un Mundo Sin Mordaza (Tu Voz Es Tu Poder. Rodrigo Diamanti, founder, was detained by the regime in May 7 '14)
urru.org (Texts, photographic, audio and video documentation on the Venezuelan political crisis)
 - Calendario de Varios Eventos y Links sobre Venezuela
 - Un Fraude Largamente Preparado (Referéndum Revocatorio - August 15 2004)
Venezolanos en Línea
Venezuela.com (Venezuela Information)
Venezuela Awareness Foundation (Promoting democracy and human rights)
VenezuelaNet.org (Por la recuperación de la democracia en Venezuela)
Vente Venezuela (Movimiento Político de Ciudadanos Libres)


Also see the "Blogs":

Adolfo R. Taylhardat
Alberto Mansueti
Alek Boyd
 - Infodio (To Uncover, Expose, Reveal)
Anthony Daquin
Antonio Sánchez García (en Noticiero Digital)
Asociación de Periodistas Venezolanos en el Extranjero (APEVEX)
Brújula Diplomática (Embajador Milos Alcalay)
Caracas Chronicles (Juan Cristobal Nagel and Francisco Toro)
 - The Untold Story of Venezuela's 2002 April Crisis
Caracas Gringo
Cátedra Pío Tamayo (Universidad Central de Venezuela) [Closed by the regime]
cifrasonline
Comando Angostura
Con Alberto Franceschi
Coronel Antonio Semprun V.
Crónicas Venezuela (Las opiniones y las noticias que son actualidad)
Democracia del siglo XXI (Teódulo López Meléndez)
Desde la distancia (Pedro F. Carmona Estanga)
Dialogando con Osorio (Juan C. Osorio)
Diplodemocracia (Bilingual information on Venezuela and its international relations)
doctorpolitico.com
Dr. Álvaro Albornoz
EcoPolítica (Lic. Raul Zapata A.)
El blog de José Antonio Colina
El Blog de William Dávila
El Domo de la Oca (Escritos de Carolina Jaimes Branger)
El Liberal Venezolano (Larry Nieves)
El Republicano Liberal (Movimiento Republicano)
Farsa Electoral (Venezuela sin Salida Electoral) [el fraude electoral en Venezuela]
Foro Libertad (Medio de comunicación libertario)
Gainza&Edmat Winds
Grupo G-400+ Venezuela (Agrupación informal de carácter técnico, plural e independiente)
HistoriaActual (Centro de Estudios de Historia Actual, Cátedra Pío Tamayo)
Informe21.com (Periodismo Ciudadano, Vladimir Gessen)
Jenny Alexandra Blando - Venezuela
Jesús Petit Da Costa
La Carolina, Venezuela (Diego Arria)
La Pluma Candente
La Protesta Militar (Coronel (R) FAV Sammy Landaeta Millán)
Las Armas de Coronel (Gustavo Coronel)
 - The time has come in Venezuela (Dec 22 '10)
 - Hugo Chávez: reo de estado en La Haya (Nov 26 '11)
 - Importante atículo de Erick Ekvall sobre el sistema electoral venezolano (Dic. 19 '11)
 - Open Letter to Hugo Chávez Frías (Jun. 29 '12)
 - Poverty is not like diabetes (Oct. 20 '12)
Las Fotos que Chávez No Quiere Que Veas
Los criterios del dragón (Jorge Ramírez Fernández)
Luz tras las rejas (Dibujos del Sargento Julio Rodríguez)
Martha Colmenares
 - grupo11 ¡prohibido olvidar! ¡Queremos justicia!
Movimiento de Resistencia Nacional de Venezuela
Muevete - Por un mundo mejor
Otto Gebauer Morales (Preso Político)
Pablo Aure
Para rescatar el porvenir (Alfredo Coronil Hartmann)
Patricia Poleo (Periodista, Premio Rey de España 2002)
 - Fugitiva en Rosa (la persecución política durante el Régimen de Hugo Chávez)
Pedro G. Paúl Bello Weblog
Píldoras de un Mismo Frasco (Alberto Quirós Corradi)
Plomo Parejo (por Radio Caracas Radio)
PMBComments on the State of Democracy in Venezuela (Pedro Mario Burelli. Twitter @pburelli)
Rafael Rivero Muñoz (Acción Cívica)
 - Condenado por mata policías y fugado, resulta ser un prófugo de la justicia (Clodosbaldo Russian)
Resistencia Catia-Caracas
ResistenciaV58
Roberto Carlo Olivares (La prensa es la artillería de la libertad)
Sammy Landaeta Millán (Coronel (R) F.A.V., en Noticiero Digital)
Soledad Morillo Belloso (Escribidora de Oficio)
S.O.S. Chávez
The Devil's Excrement (Miguel Octavio)
Unidos por Venezuela (Ovario's Blog)
vdebate - Venezuela Debate (Spanish and English)
Venezolanos Perseguidos Politicos en el Exilio (VEPPEX)
Venezuela News And Views (Daniel Duquenal & Alex Beech)
Venezuela Vetada (Juan Carlos Sosa-Azpúrua. Twitter @jcsosazpurua)
www.economiavenezolana.com (eastside magazine)
Yo Estoy con RCTV!


International Press and Opinion:

ABC.es: Internacional (Madrid, España)
Agencia de Noticias Nueva Colombia (ANNCOL) (Noticias de las FARC)
Agenda: Cuba (Lucha por el cambio dentro de Cuba)
Albert Einstein Institution (Advancing freedom through nonviolent action)
 - From Dictatorship to Democracy (Gene Sharp, 1993, .pdf)
Alianza Parlamentaria Democrática de América (APDA)
Álvaro Uribe Vélez (Presidente de Colombia, 2002-2006, 2006-2010)
 - Sin vergüenza (Rafael Nieto Loaiza. 17 de Febrero de 2014)
 - Venezuela se hunde (Saúl Hernández Bolívar. 17 de Febrero de 2014)
 - La mala hora de la democracia venezolana (Darío Acevedo Carmona. 18 de Febrero de 2014)
 - Primavera en Venezuela (Guillermo Rodríguez. 18 de Febrero de 2014)
 - Aguerrida Venezuela (Pablo Jaramillo Vasco. 18 de Febrero de 2014)
 - La Comedia del Pájaro (Rafael Nieto Navia. 19 de Febrero de 2014)
 - Oferta y demanda (Diego Mora. 19 de Febrero de 2014)
 - ¡Por qué callan! (Maria Clara Ospina. 19 de Febrero de 2014)
 - Venezuela en llamas. Santos calla (Fernando Londoño Hoyos. 20 de Febrero de 2014)
 - Se madura la "cubanización" (José Félix Lafaurie. 22 de Febrero de 2014)
 - La pesadilla venezolana (Mario Fernando Prado. 22 de Febrero de 2014)
 - El Castro Chavismo tambalea (Alfonso Monsalve S. 23 de Febrero de 2014)
 - SOS Venezuela (Fernando Londoño Hoyos. 24 de Febrero de 2014)
 - ¿Hay vida inteligente en Maduro? (Juan David Escobar V. 24 de Febrero de 2014)
 - SOS Venezuela (Saúl Hernández Bolívar. 27 de Febrero de 2014)
 - Ciego e imbécil (Rafael Gómez Martínez. 28 de Febrero de 2014)
AméricaEconomía (Primera revista de negocios de América Latina)
América Libre (Foro de São Paulo)
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI)
 - AEI Special Topic - Venezuela
   - The End of the Bolivarian Age (Roger F. Noriega, August 07, 2008)
   - Chávez Wrecks Venezuela, Democracy (Roger F. Noriega, September 25, 2008)
   - Chavez Unchecked and Unchallenged (Roger F. Noriega, August 19, 2009)
   - Hugo Chávez's Criminal Nuclear Network: A Grave and Growing Threat (Roger F. Noriega, October 14, 2009)
   - Stand Up to Our Foe Chávez (Roger F. Noriega, November 29, 2009)
   - The Chávez Spiral (Roger F. Noriega, January 11, 2010)
   - South America's Path to Freedom (David Frum, January 22, 2010)
   - How Do Chávez's Challenges Affect His Hold on Power (Roger F. Noriega, February 02, 2010)
   - Hugo Chávez, desperate and dangerous (Roger F. Noriega, February 05, 2010)
   - The Jailing of Oswaldo Alvarez Paz (Roger F. Noriega, March 23, 2010)
   - Time to Confront the Tehran-Caracas Axis (Roger F. Noriega, April 09, 2010)
   - What Chávez Wants with Us (Roger F. Noriega, August 04, 2010)
   - Chávez and China: Challenging U.S. Interests (Roger F. Noriega, August 18, 2010)
   - China, Chávez Collaborate; U.S. Wrong to Underestimate (Roger F. Noriega, August 27, 2010)
   - The Chavez Threat (John R. Bolton, September 16, 2010)
   - Chávez's Secret Nuclear Program (Roger F. Noriega, October 05, 2010)
   - Why is Hugo Chavez Afraid of the U.S. Congress? (Roger F. Noriega, December 08, 2010)
   - Is There a Chávez Terror Network on America's Doorstep? (Roger F. Noriega, March 21, 2011)
   - Without Chávez, Venezuelans may have a future (Roger F. Noriega, June 29, 2011)
   - Preparing for a post-Hugo Venezuela (José R. Cárdenas, July 15, 2011)
   - Chávez Regime Braces for Impact (Roger F. Noriega, September 19, 2011)
   - The mounting Hezbollah threat in Latin America (Roger F. Noriega, October 06, 2011)
   - Hugo Chávez's big lie (Roger F. Noriega, November 08, 2011)
   - Preparing for a future without Hugo Chávez (Roger F. Noriega, November 11, 2011)
   - Neutralizing the Iranian threat in Latin America (Roger F. Noriega, November 14, 2011)
   - Burying the Chávez legacy, soon (Roger F. Noriega, December 05, 2011)
   - US diplomats hit the 'snooze button' on Latin American threats (Roger F. Noriega, December 22, 2011)
   - Iran's gambit in Latin America (Roger F. Noriega, January 30, 2012)
   - Why 2012 is a critical year for the US and Venezuela, the narco-state on our doorstep (Roger F. Noriega, January 31, 2012)
   - Venezuela's democrats may face Chávez's narco-coup (Roger F. Noriega, February 14, 2012)
   - Iran's influence and activity in Latin America (Roger F. Noriega, February 16, 2012)
   - Sinister forces at work in Venezuela power struggle (Roger F. Noriega, March 12, 2012)
   - After Chávez, the narco-state (Roger F. Noriega, April 12, 2012)
   - Noriega: Venezuelan judge cooperating with DEA (Roger F. Noriega, April 20, 2012)
   - Venezuela's narco-conspiracy (Roger F. Noriega, April 27, 2012)
   - Castro's desperate warning (Roger F. Noriega, May 07, 2012)
   - Hugo Chavez: An uncounted enemy (Roger F. Noriega, August 03, 2012)
   - Chávez victory may be short-lived (Roger F. Noriega, October 12, 2012)
   - Venezuelan roulette (Roger F. Noriega, January 07, 2013)
   - Kerry's first task is a firm stand on Venezuela (Roger F. Noriega, January 28, 2013)
   - Post-Chávez crisis an opportunity for Venezuela (Roger F. Noriega, March 04, 2013)
   - A post-Chávez checklist for US policymakers (Roger F. Noriega, March 05, 2013)
   - Cuba's coup de grâce in Venezuela (Roger F. Noriega, March 06, 2013)
   - Igniting the post-Chávez explosion (Roger F. Noriega, José R. Cárdenas, March 07, 2013)
   - On Venezuela, Latin America's democrats must come out of hiding (Roger F. Noriega, March 11, 2013)
   - Venezuela's 'Cubanochavista' electoral machine (Roger F. Noriega, May 05, 2013)
   - If Fredo Corleone ruled Venezuela ... or does he? (Roger F. Noriega, October 02, 2013)
   - Venezuela headed for chaos (Roger F. Noriega, November 27, 2013)
   - Protesters in Ukraine and Venezuela seek the rule of law (Michael Barone, February 26, 2014)
   - Washington should not forget Venezuela (Roger F. Noriega, José R. Cárdenas, March 20, 2014)
   - Can the Chavistas save Venezuela from Cuba? (Roger F. Noriega, March 21, 2014)
 - The American (The Journal of the AEI)
   - Chávez Is Weakened But Still Dangerous (Roger F. Noriega, January 22, '09)
   - From Democracy to Dictatorship (Roger F. Noriega, February 19, '09)
   - Calling a State Sponsor a State Sponsor (Roger F. Noriega, May 29, '10)
   - Will the U.S. Hand Chávez a License to Kill? (Roger F. Noriega, July 24, '10)
   - Testing Chávez (Roger F. Noriega, September 03, '10)
   - Chávez the Cocaine Capo (Roger F. Noriega, November 09, '10)
   - 'Chavez Has Begun to Take the Path of Dictatorship' (Ambassador Richard S. Williamson, Jan. 05, '11)
   - The Toxic Transition in Venezuela (Roger F. Noriega, March 19, 2012)
   - Chávez's Dangerous Liaisons with Tehran (Roger F. Noriega, July 02, 2012)
   - Hugo Chavez's desperate bid for political survival (Roger F. Noriega, October 01, 2012)
   - Will the State Department legitimize a narco-authoritarian regime in Venezuela? (Roger F. Noriega, December 14, 2012)
Análisis Libre | Internacional (Editor: José Emilio Castellanos)
Analysis of the Security of E-Voting Systems (The Computer Security Group at UCSB)
Analysis of Voting Data from the Recent Venezuelan Referendum [Aug 15 '04] (Edward W. Felten, Department of Computer Science, Princeton University. Aviel D. Rubin, Adam Stubblefield, Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University. Sep 1, 2004)
Anti-Defamation League (Fighting Anti-Semitism, Bigotry and Extremism)
 - ADL Deeply Troubled by Reports That Venezuela's Government Intelligence Agency Is Spying on the Jewish Community (January 30, 2013)
Associated Press (AP) (Global news network)
Babalú Blog (Valentín Prieto)
BBC News | Latin America & Caribbean (International version)
Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI) Shaping Change-Strategies of Development and Transformation
 - BTI: Venezuela Country Report
Bloomberg (Business, Financial & Economic News, Stock Quotes)
 - Alvaro Uribe News
 - Venezuela News
Center for Security Policy
Canada Free Press (Online conservative newspaper)
 - Central and South America
Centre for Applied NonViolent Action and Strategies (CANVAS)
Centro de Economía Latinoamericana (CESLA)
Centro para la Apertura y el Desarrollo de América Latina (CADAL)
City Mayors: Juan Barreto - Mayor of Caracas
City Mayors: Leopoldo Eduardo López - Mayor of Chacao, Caracas
CNN (Breaking News, U.S., World, Weather, Entertainment & Video News)
 - Venezuela: News & Videos about Venezuela
CNSNews.com (The Cybercast News Service)
Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)
Conflicto Colombiano (Luis Villamarín)
Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (Florida's 18th Congressional District)
Contacto Magazine
Council on Hemispheric Affairs (COHA)
Cuba, Democracia y Vida
Cuba Encuentro (Diario independiente de asuntos Cubanos)
Cuban-American National Foundation (CANF/FNCA)
CubaNet
Cuba On-Line database (Research and information on economics, politics and social issues)
Cuba Transition Project (Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies, University of Miami)
CubDest Servicio de Difusión (Desde Cuba en el Destierro)
David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies (Harvard University)
Democracia TV (Miami, Florida)
DesdeCuba.com (Un portal de periodismo ciudadano)
Diariocritico de Venezuela
Diario de América / America's Daily
 - No olvidemos a los presos y perseguidos políticos (Venezuela, Mercedes Montero, 16/6/2008)
 - Violaciones de los derechos humanos en Venezuela (Venezuela, Mercedes Montero, 16/6/2009)
 - Condena a Mazuco no tiene precedentes (Venezuela, Mercedes Montero, 28/12/2010)
 - Caso Biaggio Pilieri: confiscación de la libertad (Venezuela, Mercedes Montero, 26/1/2011)
 - Si Chávez continúa ¡Adiós a Venezuela! (Venezuela, Mercedes Montero, 1/10/2012)
Diario de Cuba - Internacional
Diario El País - Internacional - Venezuela (Madrid, España)
Diario La Nación (Argentina)
Diario La Razón (Bolivia)
Directorio Democrático Cubano (Non-Cooperation Campaign)
Eco-Imperialism - Green Power. Black Death (Paul K. Driessen)
El Blog de Montaner (Carlos Alberto Montaner)
 - Triunfa Chávez y se consolida Capriles (Octubre 8, 2012)
El Heraldo (Periódico nacional, independiente, Tegucigalpa, Honduras)
El Imparcial (Diario liberal e independiente, Madrid, España. Luis María Anson)
El Nuevo Herald (Miami, Florida, USA)
 - El Nuevo Herald - Venezuela
 - El Nuevo Herald - América Latina
 - Andrés Oppenheimer (El Nuevo Herald)
El Ojo Digital (Buenos Aires, Argentina)
ElTiempo.com (Principales noticias de Colombia y el mundo)
 - Hugo Chávez
En defensa del neoliberalismo (Adolfo Rivero Caro)
Energy Tribune (Key issues in the energy sector)
Erick Stakelbeck on Terror (CBN News Terrorism Analyst)
 - The Iran/Venezuela Axis (with Roger Noriega and Ilan Berman, Nov 17 '10)
 - Exclusive Pics: Venezuelan Govt. Officials Meeting with Hezbollah (w/ Noriega and Berman, Dec 10 '10)
Family Security Matters Informing Americans about the issues surrounding national security
Financial Times (World business, finance and political news. London, UK)
 - Latin America & Caribbean News
Firmas Press (Revista liberal Latinoaméricana, Carlos Alberto Montaner)
 - Chávez y la trampa que se avecina (Agosto 25, 2012)
 - La triple herencia de Hugo Chávez (Marzo 10, 2013)
Florida Governor Rick Scott 45th Governor of Florida
 - Gov. Scott Applauds Rubio Resolution Condemning Venezuelan Regime (March 13, 2013)
 - Gov. Scott Statement on Venezuela and Maria Corina Machado (March 26, 2013)
Forbes.com (Business and Financial News, USA)
 - In Venezuela, Russia's Rosneft Quietly Expands Its Reach (7/02/2013)
 - Can President Maduro Right Venezuela's Economy? (11/12/2013)
Foreign Affairs
 - In Search of Hugo Chávez (Michael Shifter, May/June 2006)
 - Slouching Toward Authoritarianism (Michael Shifter update, November 7, 2007)
 - An Empty Revolution (Francisco Rodríguez, March/April, 2008)
Foreign Policy (FP) (Global Politics & Economics)
 - FP Passport (Editors blogging on global news, politics, economics and ideas)
 - Shadow Government (Blog about U.S. foreign policy under the Obama administration)
 - The Return of the Idiot (Alvaro Vargas Llosa, May/June '07)
 - Jimmy Carter blesses Venezuelan election as fear of violence grows (J. R. Cárdenas, Sep. 28, 2012)
 - What the visiting media won't see when they come to Venezuela (Francisco Toro, October 1, 2012)
 - Chávez Rides Again (Michael Albertus, October 9, 2012)
 - 'Troubling' Surveillance Before Benghazi Attack (Harald Doornbos, Jenan Moussa, November 1, 2012)
 - Venezuela's Government-Sponsored Anti-Semitism (Daniel Lansberg Rodríguez, August 15, 2014)
Foro de las Americas (Libertad y Prosperidad)
Foundation for Defense of Democracies
FOX News, FOX News Latino, FOX Business
Freedom House (A clear voice for democracy and freedom around the world)
 - Country Report: Venezuela - 2013
FRONTLINE (PBS Public affairs documentary series)
 - The Hugo Chavez Show (November 25 '08) [view online]
FrontPage Magazine (David Horowitz)
 - Venezuela
Fundación Internacional para la Libertad (FIL) (Mario Vargas Llosa)
Fundación para el Análisis y los Estudios Sociales (FAES) (José María Aznar)
Generation Y (Yoani Sánchez, Blog)
GlobalSecurity.org
 - Venezuela
Google News Search - Venezuela
HACER Latin American News (Hispanic American Center for Economic Research)
 - HACER - Venezuela
 - Venezuela: Hugo Chavez cozies up to tyrants and narco-terrorists (John R. Thomson, August 26 '10)
 - Venezuela: El cartel bolivariano (Nelson Castellano-Hernández, November 18, 2013)
Havana Journal Business, Culture, Politics, Travel News and Information
Heitor de Paola Papéis Avulsos (Brasil)
Hon. Jim Karygiannis M.P. - Civil Rights Suppressed in Venezuela (Scarborough-Agincourt, Canada)
Honduras Libre y en Democracia (Blog, Eloy Page)
HonestReporting (Defending Israel from Media Bias)
Human Events Conservative News, Views & Books (USA)
IBDeditorials Editorials, Political Cartoons, and Polls from Investor's Business Daily
IBI Consultants (Douglas Farah)
 - Transnational Organized Crime, Terrorism, and Criminalized States in Latin America: An Emerging Tier-One National Security Priority (August 16, 2012)
Impacto CNA (Citizen News Agency. Actualidad venezolana, latinoamericana y mundial)
 - Impacto CNA - Venezuela
Independent Venezuelan American Citizens (IVAC) (Non-profit organization in Miami, helping legal residents change their status to American Citizens without any cost)
Infobae América (Últimas noticias de Latinoamérica)
Infolatam (Información y Análisis de América Latina, España)
 - Infolatam - Venezuela
InSight Crime (Organized Crime in the Americas)
Instituto Prensa y Sociedad (IPYS)
 - Instituto Prensa y Sociedad (IPYS) - Venezuela
International Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT)
 - Venezuelan Ties to Hezbollah ICT Database Staff, 14/08/2008
 - Iran and its Proxy Hezbollah: Strategic Penetration in Latin America Dr. Ely Karmon, 15/04/2009
Interamerican Institute for Democracy
Inter American Press Association (SIP/IAPA)
InterAmerican Security Watch
 - Rumors over Chavez absence reach frenzy in Venezuela (Andrew Cawthorne, REUTERS, June 28 '11)
 - If Hugo Goes (Michael Shifter, Foreign Policy, June 29 '11)
 - The Toxic Transition in Venezuela (Roger Noriega, March 19 '12)
 - After Chávez, the Narcostate (Roger Noriega, April 12 '12)
 - If Fredo Corleone ruled Venezuela ... or does he? (Roger Noriega, October 3 '13)
 - The OAS is AWOL on Venezuela (Roger Noriega, March 5 '14)
International Association of Broadcasters (AIR-IAB) (Radio & Television)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
International News Analysis Today (Toby Westerman)
International News Edition of The New York Times (Americas)
Jerusalem Post
 - 'Serious threat to Venezuela's Jews' (03/09/2010)
 - Jewish community in Venezuela shrinks by half (09/01/2010)
 - Hugo Chavez to talk with Jewish leaders in Venezuela (09/09/2010)
 - 'Die Welt': Iran building rocket bases in Venezuela (05/17/2011)
José Brechner (El Planeta y Latinoamérica. Analista Político Internacional)
La Minaccia (The Threat, a documentary by Silvia Luzi and Luca Bellino, is the chronicle of a desilusion)
La Prensa (El Periódico Hispano de la Florida)
Latin American Studies (Dr. Antonio Rafael de la Cova)
Latin Business Chronicle (Daily source on Latin America's business, technology and politics)
 - Venezuela
Latinobarómetro (Opinión Pública Latinoamericana)
LatinPetroleum Magazine (Petroleum News, Oil & Gas News)
Letras Libres (Enrique Krauze, Director)
 - Publicaciones de Alberto Barrera Tyszka
 - El manual de Hugo Chávez (Alberto Barrera Tyszka, Noviembre 1999)
 - La Venezuela de Chávez (Scott Johnson, Julio 2005)
 - Chávez, vivir en la mentira (Alberto Barrera Tyszka, Diciembre 2007)
 - Y salimos a matar gente (Alberto Barrera Tyszka, Octubre 2010)
 - Hugo Chávez: la enfermedad como espectáculo (Alberto Barrera Tyszka, Septiembre 2011)
 - Carta a un chavista (Enrique Krauze, Octubre 1, 2012)
 - El ardid y el valor (Enrique Krauze, Abril 24, 2013)
LiberPress (Contenidos y noticias del pensamiento liberal. Observación de Cuba y Venezuela)
Libertad Digital - Internacional (Noticias y opinión en la Red, España)
Library of Economics and Liberty
 - An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Adam Smith, 1776-1789)
Madres y Mujeres Anti-Represión (M.A.R.) por Cuba
Martí Noticias (U.S. Office of Cuba Broadcasting, Radio y TV Martí Online)
Milton Friedman - 'Free To Choose' (1980) (a PBS TV Series): Power of the Market, The Tyranny of Control, Anatomy of a Crisis, From Cradle to Grave, Created Equal, What's Wrong With Our Schools?, Who Protects the Consumer?, Who Protects the Worker?, How to Cure Inflation, How to Stay Free.
Updated 1990 Series: The Power of the Market, The Tyranny of Control, Freedom & Prosperity, The Failure of Socialism, Created Equal.
National Council of Resistance of Iran - Foreign Affairs Committee
National Review Online
NetforCuba.org (The realities of Cuba today)
NewsMax - The Americas
Noticuba Internacional (Un medio al servicio de la verdad)
NTN24 (Tele News)
Nueva Mayoría (The socio-political gate to Ibero-America)
Nueva Política.net (Spanish and English magazine)
NY Daily News - Hugo Chavez
Olavo de Carvalho (Sapientiam Autem Non Vincit Malitia) [Malice does not defeat wisdom, Saint Paul]
 - The Revolutionary Mentality ["The revolutionary is the worst enemy of the human species"]
Oxford Analytica (International, independent consulting firm)
Periodismo Sin Fronteras (Ricardo Puentes Melo - Periodismo de opinión. Colombia, Venezuela)
Periodista Latino (Madrid, España)
 - Cacos 'disfrazados' de policías secuestran a dos empresarios españoles en Venezuela (Sep. 25 '12)
Pilar Rahola (Essays, lectures, interviews and photographs)
PJ Media
 - Avoiding a Bloodbath in Venezuela (Jaime Darenblum, April 19, 2012)
 - The Chávez Legacy in Venezuela (Jaime Darenblum, January 10, 2013)
Plantados (Hasta la Libertad y la Democracia en Cuba)
Poder 360° (USA, Miami, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Venezuela)
RealClearPolitics (Opinion, News, Analysis, Videos and Polls)
 - Venezuela
 - Latin America: Wikileaks Relief (Álvaro Vargas Llosa, December 8, 2010)
 - The Coming Venezuela Missile Crisis (Jed Babbin, December 22, 2010)
 - Latin America, 2011 (Álvaro Vargas Llosa, December 29, 2010)
 - Carlos Andres Perez's Prediction (Álvaro Vargas Llosa, January 5, 2011)
 - Chavez's Dangerous Liaisons With Tehran (Roger Noriega, July 2, 2012)
RealClearWorld (Global news and commentary)
 - Venezuela
Rebelión - Venezuela (Heinz Dieterich, James Petras, Marta Harnecker, Noam Chomsky, and others)
Red Latinoamericana y del Caribe para la Democracia (REDLAD)
Reporters Without Borders
 - Venezuela
Reporte Virtual Digital documentary platform
Reuters.com World News, Financial News, Breaking US & International News
Revelaciones Cuba, Cuba al Descubierto (Bernardo Jurado)
Revista América Libre (órgano de comunicación del Foro de Sao Paulo)
Robert Amsterdam - Americas (perspectives on Global Politics and business)
Selous Foundation for Public Policy Research (SFPPR)
 - Articles by Gustavo Coronel
 - Hugo Chavez: Not a Mandela but a Mugabe (Gustavo Coronel, March 11, 2013)
Semana.com (Bogotá, Colombia)
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
Stratfor (Strategic Forecasting, w/Free Intelligence Reports)
 - George Friedman on Geopolitics (Free weekly)
   - A Change of Course in Cuba and Venezuela? (September 21, 2010)
TheAtlantic.com
 - Venezuelan Exodus (Jan 31, 2012)
The Boston Globe
 - Nearly 200 people gather in Boston to protest violence, corruption in Venezuela (February 19, 2014)
 - John Kerry steps up criticism of Venezuela crackdown (February 23, 2014)
 - Protests in Venezuela - Photos (Boston.com, February 28, 2014)
 - International scrutiny of Venezuela grows (March 08, 2014)
 - Venezuela government moves forces into protest plaza (March 17, 2014)
 - Venezuela moves against opposition (March 20, 2014)
 - Oliver Stone and Mark Weisbrot: Obama wrong to isolate Venezuela (March 22, 2014)
 - Venezuela opposition lawmaker has lost seat (March 24, 2014)
 - Venezuelan officials break up protesters' camps, arrests 243 (May 09, 2014)
 - Venezuelans ask what now after protest camp raids (May 10, 2014)
 - Food projects of Hugo Chavez are languishing in Venezuela (May 11, 2014)
 - Kennedy School alumnus gets award (May 18, 2014)
 - Crackdown presents challenge to Citizens Energy, Joe Kennedy II (May 25, 2014)
The Cato Institute (Research foundation headquartered in Washington, D.C.)
 - The Cato Institute: Milton Friedman
 - Exclusive Interview with F. A. Hayek (James U. Blanchard III, May/June 1984)
 - Corruption, Mismanagement, and Abuse of Power in Hugo Chávez's Venezuela
   (Gustavo Coronel, November 27, 2006)
 - Hugo Chávez's Unfulfilled Promises (Gustavo Coronel, December 1, 2006)
 - A Letter to Danny Glover (Gustavo Coronel, May 31, 2007)
 - Misreading Venezuela (Gustavo Coronel, August 15, 2007)
 - Will the frog jump? (Gustavo Coronel, September 28, 2007)
 - Hugo Choice (Gustavo Coronel, November 30, 2007)
The Economist (Analysis of world business and current affairs)
 - The Big Mac index (Interactive currency-comparison tool)
 - Venezuela
 - Hugo Chávez's Venezuela: A coup against the constitution (Editorial, Dec. 28, 2010)
 - Americas View (Politics, Economics, Society, Culture in Latin America, the Caribbean and Canada Blog)
   - Life, liberty and property (Americas View: Franklin Brito, Aug. 31, 2010)
   - The three-day trip to the polling station (Americas View: Sep. 26th 2012)
 - Clausewitz (Defence, Security and Diplomacy Blog)
The Guardian (Latest news, comment and reviews, UK)
 - Venezuela, Hugo Chávez
The Heritage Foundation: Policy Research and Analysis
 - Venezuela
 - Index of Economic Freedom - Venezuela
 - What to Do about Hugo Chávez: Venezuela's Challenge to Security in the Americas (February 19, 2009)
 - The Chávez Plan to Steal Venezuela's Presidential Election: What Obama Should Do (Sept. 19, 2012)
 - Libertad.org (Political Analysis and Opinion in Spanish for Latinos)
The Independent Institute (Public policy research and debate)
The Investigative Project on Terrorism (IPT)
 - Book, Video Show Hizballah Training Near Caracas (May 26, 2010)
The Meir Amit Intelligence & Terrorism Information Center (Israel)
The Miami Herald - Americas
 - The Oppenheimer Report
 - Why we spy on Brazil (Carlos Alberto Montaner, 09.25.13)
The New American - World News - South America
 - Hugo Chavez's "Red Coup" at MERCOSUR Trade Summit (William F. Jasper, 30 July 2012)
 - U.S. Ambassador Outs Powerful Totalitarian Cabal in Latin America (Alex Newman, 22 November 2013)
The New York Times (NYT)
 - Venezuela News - Breaking World Venezuela News (updated Sept. 27 2012)
 - A Venezuelan Oasis of Elitism Counts Its Days (by Simón Romero, December 27, 2010)
 - Venezuela to Investigate Report That Brazilian Miners Massacred Indian Village (by William Neuman and María Eugenia Díaz, August 30, 2012)
The Online Library of Liberty (A project of Liberty Fund Inc.)
 - Ludwig von Mises, Liberalism: The Classical Tradition (LF ed.) [1962]
 - Ludwig von Mises, Human Action: A Treatise on Economics [1949]
The Real Cuba
The Tea Party - This Message to the People of Venezuela is Going Viral [Joel Frewa, 9m Video. Mar. 1, '14. Eng/Esp]
The Threat Closer to Home: Hugo Chavez and the War Against America (Douglas Schoen and Michael Rowan, January 2009, Simon & Schuster.com) [Read online]
The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) (Business & Financial News, Markets Data & Charts)
 - WSJ/Americas (in Spanish)
 - Chávez's 40-Year Plan to Conquer Vice (Mary Anastasia O'Grady, Dec. 5, '11)
 - O'Grady: Castro Endorses Obama (Mary Anastasia O'Grady, Jun. 10, 2012)
 - OPEC: Viva El Presidente (WSJ, Oct. 8, 2012)
 - Venezuela Sinks Under a Big, Incompetent Government (WSJ, Oct. 14, 2012)
 - The Fog of Benghazi (WSJ, Nov. 2, 2012)
 - John Kerry's Record in Latin America (Mary Anastasia O'Grady, Dec. 23, 2012)
The Washington Post: World, South America:
 - Venezuelan consumers fear inflation, dump cash after Chávez devalues bolivar (January 13, 2010)
 - Venezuela President Chavez orders TV station off the air (January 25, 2010)
 - Organization of American States report rebukes Venezuela on human rights (February 25, 2010)
 - Venezuelan judge is jailed after ruling angers President Hugo Chávez (April 25, 2010)
 - Arrest in Venezuela raises free speech concerns (March 24, 2010)
 - Oil-rich Venezuela gripped by economic crisis (April 29, 2010)
 - Venezuela's Hugo Chavez allegedly helped Colombian, Spanish militants forge ties (May 20, 2010)
 - Chavez fails to reach critical two-thirds majority in Venezuelan assembly (September 28, 2010)
 - Venezuela acquires 1,800 antiaircraft missiles from Russia (December 11, 2010)
 - Venezuela's Hugo Chavez is granted decree powers by lame-duck National Assembly (Dec. 18, 2010)
 - Nicolas Maduro shoves aside democracy in Venezuela (April 16, 2013)
 - Venezuelan president Maduro given power to rule by decree (Nov. 19, 2013)
 - See Articles by Juan Forero
 - Venezuela's Maduro resorts to state-sponsored looting (Opinions - Editorial Board. Nov. 21, 2013)
 - Venezuela's neighbors have to work to stem the chaos (Opinions - Editorial Board. Feb. 18, 2014)
 - Why Venezuela's student protesters have already won (Opinions - Javier Corrales. Feb. 28, 2014)
 - Jackson Diehl: Venezuela, the uprising no one is noticing (Deputy Editorial Page Editor. March 3, 2014)
The Washington Times (Politics, Breaking News, US and World News)
The World Bank
 - Worldwide Governance Indicators (Data)
 - Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)
Townhall (Conservative news, politics, opinion, breaking news analysis, political cartoons, commentary)
 - Venezuela (News, Articles, Videos & Pictures)
Unión de Organizaciones Democráticas de América (UnoAmérica)
 - El plan del Foro de São Paulo para destruir las Fuerzas Armadas (Alejandro Peña Esclusa)
 - Alejandro Peña Esclusa: Desde los calabozos de Chávez (Enero 12 '11)
 - Diputados bolivianos entregan carta en la Embajada pidiendo libertad de Peña Esclusa (Mayo 14 '11)
 - Brasil: Duras críticas al sistema judicial venezolano (Junio 6 '11)
 - Maduro anuncia estremecedora ofensiva tras firmar los "superpoderes" (Noviembre 20, 2013)
Urgente 24 (Buenos Aires, Argentina)
U.S. Department of State - Venezuela
 - U.S. Embassy - Venezuela (Page in the U.S.A.)
 - Freedom of Information Act (Documents)
Venezuela Election Maps (Dorothy Kronick, PhD Student, Department of Political Science)
VOA News - Voice of America - English News
What's Next Venezuela? (The radicalization of the Chávez regime)
World Economic Forum
 - Competitiveness Library
World Justice Project (WJP) (To strengthen the rule of law for the development of communities)
 - WJP Rule of Law Index, Venezuela
WorldNetDaily (A Free Press for a Free People)
World Socialist Web Site Published by the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI)


Human Rights in Venezuela:

Acción por la Libertad (Presos Políticos en Venezuela)
Amnesty International, Amnistía Internacional - Venezuela
Asociación Civil Súmate, Entornos Súmate
 - Informes - Procesos Electorales de Venezuela
 - En busca del cisne negro Análisis de la evidencia estadística sobre el fraude electoral en Venezuela
   [Estudio de R. Haussman y R. Rigobón] (.pdf, Sep 3 '04)
 - The Carter report on the Hausmann-Rigobon Analysis is bereft of any statistical basis (.pdf, Sep 17 '04)
 - Information on the State of Democracy in Venezuela
 - Venezuela en Cifras Oficiales (Indicadores económicos y sociales)
 - Informe Súmate - Referéndo Sobre Proyecto de Reforma Constitucional (.pdf, Ene 24 '08)
 - Inconsistencias e incongruencias en boletines de resultados presentados por el CNE (.pdf, Feb 25 '08)
Carr Center for Human Rights Policy (The Latin American Initiative. Harvard Kennedy School)
Case Osvaldo Álvarez Paz (Omar Estacio and Juan Carlos Álvarez, 861 KB .pdf, 27 April 2010)
Centro de Asesoría y Promoción Electoral (CAPEL) (Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos)
COFAVIC Promoción y Protección de los Derechos Humanos
Foro Penal Venezolano (ONG para defender activamente y promover los Derechos Humanos.)
Fundación para el Debido Proceso (Investigación de violaciones a los D.H. y defensa de las víctimas)
Human Rights Watch (HRW)
 - A Decade Under Chavez: Political Intolerance and Lost Opportunities .... (Sep. 18, 2008)
  [HRW officials were expelled from Venezuela hours after the publishing of this report]
 - Venezuela Legislative Assault on Free Speech, Civil Society (Dec. 22, 2010)
 - Venezuela: Concentration and Abuse of Power Under Chávez (Jul. 17, 2012)
 - World Report 2013: Venezuela
 - World Report 2014: Venezuela
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR - OAS) (Organization of American States)
[Since May 2002 Venezuela has been denying the Commission its permission for another visit]
[See Annual Report 2006 - Chapter IV - Human Rights Developments in Venezuela]
[See Report Feb 24, 2010 - Democracy and Human Rights in Venezuela]
Inter-American Court of Human Rights (OAS)
International Crisis Group (Conflict prevention and resolution)
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA)
International News Safety Institute
International Press Institute (IPI)
International Solidarity for Human Rights (ISHR)
INTERPOL (International police organization)
 - Forensic report requested by Colombia on seized FARC computers and hardware (May 15 '08)
Iván Simonovis (Preso Polìtico)
National Endowment for Democracy (NED), Venezuela Programs Facts
Observatorio Hannah Arendt (El derecho a la educación vs. ideologización de la educación)
Observatorio Venezolano de Conflictividad Social
Observatorio Venezolano de Prisiones Derechos Humanos en el ámbito penitenciario venezolano
Organization of American States (OAS) [Observers of the Recall Referendum fraud in August 2004]
 - OAS: Inter-American Democratic Charter [In effect?]
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos (Provea)
Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC)
 - Chavez Hate Set Stage for Sabbath Armed Invasion and Desecration of Synagogue February 1, 2009
 - Venezuela's Anti-Semitic Campaign Protested by Simon Wiesenthal Center January 30, 2009
 - Antisemitism in Venezuela: SWC Protests to the Organization of American States January 29, 2009
 - SWC to UN: "Venezuela's Candidacy for Council Seat is a Travesty" 24 February, 2012
 - Wiesenthal Center Denounces Venezuelan Bloc "Defense School" in Bolivia June 3, 2012
 - "Chavez' Victory a Tehran and Damascus Celebration" October 9, 2012
The Carter Center [Observers of the Recall Referendum fraud in August 2004]
 - Report on an Analysis of the Representativeness of the Second Audit Sample, and the Correlation Between Petition Signers and the Yes Vote in the Aug. 15, 2004, Presidential Recall Referendum (.pdf)
The Human Rights Foundation (HRF)
 - Caracas Nine (Nine Victims of Political Persecution in Venezuela)
 - Tell Chávez (Demand Human Rights of Venezuela's Political Prisoners' Be Respected)
The Lawfare Project (Exposing Threats to Democracy & Freedom)
TIC's y Derechos Humanos (Luis Manuel Aguana)
Transparency International (Corruption Perceptions Index)
Venezuela was 160th of 177 countries in 2013, the 17th most corrupt in the world.
Venezuela was 165th of 176 countries in 2012, the 11th most corrupt in the world.
Venezuela was 172th of 182 countries in 2011, the 10th most corrupt in the world.
Venezuela was 164th of 178 countries in 2010, the 12th most corrupt in the world.
Venezuela was 162th of 180 countries in 2009, the 14th most corrupt in the world.
Venezuela was 158th of 180 countries in 2008, the 16th most corrupt in the world.
Venezuela was 162th of 179 countries in 2007, the 17th most corrupt in the world.
Venezuela was 138th of 163 countries in 2006, the 25th most corrupt in the world.
It was 130th in 2005, 114th in 2004, 100th in 2003, 81th in 2002, 69th in 2001, 71th in 2000, 75th in 1999, 77th in 1998.

 - Transparencia Venezuela (Prevenir y disminuir el uso del poder público para beneficio personal)
According to the Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV), it can be stated that, by the end of fiscal exercise 2004, there was a difference of US $3,500 million between the money reported as paid by PDVSA and the amount that reached the BCV.
The Venezuelan government intervened in the official process for participation by Transparencia Venezuela at the Organization of American States (OAS) with the aim of silencing the 2006 report on that country's compliance with the Inter-American Convention against Corruption.

Un Fraude Largamente Preparado (urru.org - Índice de Documentos 2004 - Varios del fraude)
 - En busca del cisne negro Análisis de la evidencia estadística sobre el fraude electoral en Venezuela.
   Estudio de R. Haussman y R. Rigobón, para Súmate (.pdf, Sep 3 '04)
 - Fraud Against Democracy: The Venezuelan Case (.pdf, Oct 15 '04)
 - Fraud Against Democracy: The Venezuelan Case (Summary) (MS Word document, Oct 15 '04)
 - Impugnacion del Referéndo Revocatorio ante el CNE
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations)
UN Watch Monitoring the UN, Promoting Human Rights




Oil-Price.net:


Today's crude oil price, change, % change (WTI $/bbl)
Crude oil prices for the month, quarter, year, or 5-year period (WTI $/bbl)
[Venezuelan crude oil sells at a price lower than West Texas Intermediate (WTI)]

Did High Oil Prices Cause the Financial Crash? (Oil-Price.net)

See PetroleumWorld.com (Latin American Energy, Oil & Gas)


The First Law of Petropolitics: The price of oil and the pace of freedom always move in opposite directions. Thomas L. Friedman, Foreign Policy. April 25, 2006.




New Time Zone for Venezuela:

From 24 September 2007* the Time Zone for Venezuela would be GMT - 4.5 hrs.
This time zome was not available from the Windows Control Panel - Date and Time - Time Zone.

* [This change was again delayed, till December 9, 03:00]
   Hotfix to add a time zone in Venezuela (GMT-4.5) for 2007 in Windows XP, Server 2003, and Vista,
   Microsoft Support, September 28 '07 (available through Windows Update).


Manual solution:

  1. Download and run the Windows Time Zone Editor (TZEDIT.EXE) from Microsoft Support or from Microsoft Download.
  2. Create a new Time Zone, i.e. "New Time Zone VE", for GMT - 4.5 hrs.
  3. Activate it (when it is in effect) from the Control Panel - Date and Time - Time Zone.


This time zone change backs your clock, and advances all astronomical events, in 30 minutes.

This is the original time zone for the Legal Time in Venezuela, adopted in 1912 and based on the meridian of Villa de Cura (Longitude 67.5° W, Estado Aragua). It replaced the meridian based on Punta de Playa (Longitude 60° W, Estado Delta Amacuro) adopted in 1965 for GMT - 4 hrs.

Longitude on Earth is related to Local Time:
360° of Longitude equal 24 hours, this is; 1 hour equals 15° of Longitude (360/24 = 15).
67.5° of Longitude equal 4.5 hours (67.5/15 = 4.5).


With a time zone of GMT - 4 hrs, in 2007:
The Sun is zenital over Caracas on April 17 at 12:27, and August 26 at 12:29. *
The earliest sunrise occurs on May 30 at 06:04, and the latest on January 27 at 06:51. +
The earliest sunset occurs on November 18 at 18:01, and the latest on July 13 at 18:54. +
[All these events would be advanced by 30 minutes with the Time Zone GMT - 4.5 hrs]
With a time zone of GMT - 4.5 hrs, in 2007:
The earliest sunset would occur on November 18 at 17:31. +

* See Topocentric Positions of Major Solar System Objects and Bright Stars at the US Naval Observatory,
   or NOAA Solar Position Calculator.

+ Calculated with SunGraph for Macintosh & PC, at Analemma (Bob Urschel).


With a time zone of GMT - 4 hrs, for Caracas:
The earliest sunrise occurs at 06:04, and the latest at 06:51.
The earliest sunset occurs a las 18:01, and the latest at 18:54.

With a time zone of GMT - 4.5 hrs, for Caracas:
The earliest sunrise occurs at 05:34, and the latest at 06:21.
The earliest sunset occurs at 17:31, and the latest at 18:24.



This page was updated in: November 23 '14

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